Chapter 1 Timeline

  • 4 million BCE

    4 million BCE
    First Australopithecines found in southern and eastern Africa.
  • Period: to

    Australopithecines (4m - 1m BCE)

    Australopithecines are believed to be the first human-like to walk upright. They were found in southern and eastern Africa and had a brain size of 500 cm cubed.
  • 3 million BCE

  • Period: to

    Homo Habilis (2.5m - 1.5m BCE)

    The Homo Habilis, or "Man of Skill", was found in east africa, and are believed to be the first hominids to make basic stone tools.
  • Period: to

    Paleolithic Age (2.5m - 8k BC)

    The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age, is the first and longer part of the Stone Age. The oldest found stone tools were found to be from the Paleolithic Age.
  • 2 million BCE

  • Period: to

    Homo Erectus (1.6m - 30k BC)

    The Homo Erectus, or "Upright Man", is believed by some to have been a more intelligent and adaptable species. They developed technology and became skillful hunters over time, as well as invented more sophisticated tools. They are also believed to have been the first hominids to use fire.
  • 1 million BCE

    1 million BCE
    Last of the Australopithecines species dies off.
  • Period: to

    Neanderthal (200k - 30k BC)

    Neanderthals, earliest found in 200,000 BC, are believed to have been the first hominids to have burials and have religious beleifs. They were also believed to have been very resourceful, survivng winters living in caves or temporary shelters, and using blades and other tools to hunt.
  • 30,000 BCE

    30,000 BCE
    Neanderthals and Homo Erectus die out.
  • Period: to

    Cro-Magnon (40k - 8k BC)

    Cro Magnons, found in Europe, were physically identical to humans, and made many specialized tools and used superior hunting strategies. They also are believed to have had a more advanced spoken language and to have created the first artwork.
  • 8,000 BCE

    8,000 BCE
    Paleolithic Age ends, Neolithic Age begins; Latest Cro-Magnon remains are found.
  • Beginning of Agricultural Revoultion (8k BCE)

    Beginning of Agricultural Revoultion (8k BCE)
    Approximate time period when argiculture was discovered. Causes of the agricultural revoultuion include change in climate, and lack of steady food source provided by hunting.
  • Period: to

    Neolithic Age (8k - 3k BC)

    The Neolithic was the later and shorter part of the Stone Age. During this era, it is believed that people learned to polish stone, create pottery, grow crops, and raise animals.
  • Jarmo (7,000 BCE)

    Jarmo (7,000 BCE)
    Approximate time when town of Jarmo was built in northern modern-day Iraq. Jarmo was one of the first agricultural cities, and farmed wheat and barley, as well as wild goats, pigs, sheep, and horses.
  • Catal Huyuk (6k BCE)

    Catal Huyuk (6k BCE)
    Approximate time when the settlement of Catal Huyuk was built. Catal Huyuk produced large crops of wheat barley, and peas, and had large numbers of sheep and cattle. Due to their large surplus of food, the people of catal huyuk could diversify, allowing for several craftsmen. The town was best known for it's obsidian workings, and many religious artifacts and shrines were found there.
  • Pottery Invented (3.5k BCE)

    Pottery Invented (3.5k BCE)
    Approximatley when Sumerian peoples first used potter's wheels to shape clay into pots, bowl, and the like.
  • Writing is invented (3k BCE)

    Writing is invented (3k BCE)
    Approximatley 3,000 BC, writing was invented, which allowed for scientists to learn more about ancient cultures.
  • Bronze Age Begins (3k BCE)

    Bronze Age Begins (3k BCE)
    Approximate time when Bronze Age began in Sumer. Bronze was made by sumerian metalworkers by combining various amounts of tin and copper. By approximatley 2,500 BCE, workers in Sumeria could produce bronze spearheads by the thousands.
  • Cuneiform Invented (3k BCE)

    Cuneiform Invented (3k BCE)
    Approximate time when Sumerian scribes invented a system of writing called Cuneiform, meaning "wedge-shaped." Cuneiform was written on clay tablets with sharpened reeds and then baked to preserve the writings.
  • City of Ur Founded (3k BCE)

    City of Ur Founded (3k BCE)
    Approximate time when Ur, one of the earliest cities in Sumer, was founded. Ur was an agriculturally- based city that also had thriving trade, using a barter system (trading items for items without use of currency). The city had many social classes, with preists and religious figures holding power. The city's most distinguishing feature was the temple or Ziggurat (meaning mountain of god), which served as a site for many sacrifices and offerings to the city's gods.
  • 0 BCE

  • Period: to

    Woolley Expedition (1922-1934)

    English archaeologist Leonard Woolley lead conducted an excavation at the site of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur, where he concluded exsisted at approximatley 3,000 BCE.
  • Period: to

    Mary Leakey's expedition

    Archaelogist Mary Leakey leads an expeditiion to the Laetoli region of Tanzania in East frica, where her team looked for clues about human origin. In 1978, her team found prehistoric footprints. (See 1978 : Discovery of Ancient Footprints)
  • Robert Braidwood Expedition (1950s)

    Robert Braidwood Expedition (1950s)
    Approximatley when archaeologist Robert Braidwood led an archaelogical expedition to Jarmo, where he learned much about the site.
  • 1978 : Discovery of Ancient Footprints

    1978 : Discovery of Ancient Footprints
    Archaeologist Mary Leakey discovers Australopithecine footprints similar to those of modern humans perserved in volcanic ash.
  • 1974 : Discovery of "Lucy"

    1974 : Discovery of "Lucy"
    United Sates Anthropologist Donald Johnson finds an adult female Australopithecine skeleton in Ethiopia, wheich is nicknamed "Lucy." Lucy is believed to have lived 3.5 million years prior.
  • 2,000 AD

    Turn of the 21st Century