Chapter 2 - Imperial + Colonial Policy

  • Treaty of Nanking

    Treaty of Nanking
    Britain gained Hong Kong
    Free trade with any merchants in China
    Forced China to pay for damages for destroyed opium
  • Australia implementation of Durham Report

    Responsible government
    British gov with majority + representative assembly
    All but one Australian colony
  • Efforts to strengthen army

    1857 - only 40,000 British troops
    B:I troops - roughly 1:2
    Late 1880s - 70,000 Britons + 125,000 Indian troops
    Trained + stationed in their own district - prevent any sense of unity
    Mixed by caste + religion
    Mainly recruited Gurkhas + Sikhs
    Replaced 62/74 Bengali regiments
    Brahmin regiments disappeared
    British officers increased
    Field artillery given to British
    Indians denied officer ranking
    Growth of railways
  • Indian Rebellion

    Indian Rebellion
    Began in Meerut
    Sepoys refused to load new cartridges in guns
    Thought it contained lard from cows and pigs - violated Muslim and Hindu beliefs
  • India Office established

    Separate Sec of State
    Handled Indian + East Asian affairs
    Following Indian mutiny
  • Treaty of Tientsin

    Treaty of Tientsin
    Authorised British + French concessions in Tianjin
  • Earl Canning become Viceroy

    Earl Canning become Viceroy
  • Ladies' Commission for the Amelioration of the Condition of Women in Heathen Countries

    Auxiliary to Wesleyan Missionary Society
  • Government of India Act

    East India Company ceased to exist - passed on to Queen
    Position for Secretary of State for India was created - received powers + duties formerly exercised by EIC directors
    Council of 15 members appointed by Sec of State for India to act as advisory body - had experience of Indian affairs
    Viceroy replaced Gov-Gen
    Indian civil service placed under control of state
  • Reformed administration

    Legislative council of 5 responsible for finance, law, army, economy, home affairs
    Viceroy represented by provincial governors/chief commissioners with their own legislative councils
    Local councils for practical, daily issues
    Civil servants mainly white males - given job based on examinations
    565 nominally independent princely states - viceroy relied on them
    Could no longer adopt heirs - ended Doctrine of Lapse
    More attention to Indian traditions following Indian Rebellion
  • Missionary station at Fat-shan, China

  • Pressure on Mexico to keep access open

    Pressure to uphold free trade
  • Mission for Han-Kau

  • Robert Hart appointed Head of Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Office

    Robert Hart appointed Head of Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Office
    Protect British interests
    Branch of Qing gov
    China joined Britain's informal empire
    British gained access to Chinese markets
  • Britain in Latin America

    Britain in Latin America
    British public capital stood at over £80mn
    Latin America was 10% of British imports + exports in 2nd half of C.19th
  • Second Reform Act

    2.5 mil men / 30 mil people
    Property ownership
    Men over 21
  • John Kirk become Consul General of Zanzibar

  • First Census of Indian Population

    At least 236 million people directly under British rule or in states under treaties with British
  • Unification of Germany

    Unification of Germany
  • British annexed Malaya

  • Methodist missionaries prepared the ground for British in Fiji

  • Brussels Conference

    King Leopold + conference of explorers + leaders from Eur
    Motivated by King's interests in Congo
    - Africans incapable of ruling themselves + developing natural resources therefore European intervention necessary
    - Routes to Africa's lakes need to be developed with roads or railways
    - Intl African Assoc. should be established to coordinate European efforts
    Promoted more competition - govs suspicious of Leopold
  • Queen Victoria made Empress of India

    Queen Victoria made Empress of India
  • France extend control into W Sudan

  • Treaty of Gandamak

    Treaty of Gandamak
    Ceded various Afghan lands to the Brits
    Control over Afghan foreign policy
  • British took Sarawak, North Borneo (parts of Malaysia)

  • Charles Morrison acquires Mercantile Bank of River Plate in Argentina

    Was a British City financer
    Invested in country's utilities
  • South African Conference

  • Representation of the People Act

    Addressed imbalance of votes between boroughs + counties
    2/3 of men could now vote
  • Mackenzie put pressure on Brit gov to establish protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana)

    Mackenzie put pressure on Brit gov to establish protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana)
    Mackenzie appointed Deputy Commissioner
  • Russian expansion to borders of Afghanistan

    Also began constructing railway
    British feared it would mess with their rule in India
  • Portugal asserted claims to control mouth of Congo River

    Portugal asserted claims to control mouth of Congo River
  • Control of Africa

    80% of Africa still under local control
    Europe mainly near coastal regoins
  • British take Brunei

  • British take Upper Burma

  • Berlin Conference concluded

    Berlin Conference concluded
    Initiated by Bismarck
    Attended by foreign ministers of 4 Eur states + US
    Secure agreement that mouths of Congo + Niger Rivers would remain neutral
    Negotiated territories
    General Act:
    - All nations permitted to free trade in basin of Congo + surrounding outlets
    - Powers with influence should protect indigenous pop + suppress slave trade
    - If any power wants possession of land near Congo River, it needs to notify in case other states claim the land
    Created effective occupation
  • West Indies Conference

  • France gains Indochina

    France gains Indochina
  • Trans-Siberian Railway

    Further threatened Britain
  • Crowther forced to resign

    Crowther forced to resign
    Samuel Crowther- former slave endowed into CoE
    First Anglican African bishop in Niger region - accused of being too lenient on heathen practices
    Forced to resign
  • 90% of Africa in European hands