Bosnian Genocide

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    Croatian War of Independence

    The Croatian War of Independence, which was fought from March of 1991 until November 12, 1995, between Croatia, which declared independence from Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav People's Army, which was controlled by Serbia, and Serb forces, although the Yugoslav People's Army ended its military involvement in Croatia by 1992. At the end of the war, Croatia achieved its independence. The death total on both sides is estimated at 20,000, with civilians displaced on both sides during the conflict.
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    Bijeljina Massacre

    The Bijeljina Massacre was the killing of Bosniaks by Arkan's Tigers, a Serbian volunteer paramilitary group, under the sanction of the Yugoslav People's Army. Arkan's Tigers invaded Bijeljina on April 1, 1992. At least 48 civilians were killed, including any Serbians who attempted to end the massacre.
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    Bosnian War

    The Bosnian War, which took place as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia, was an international armed conflict which claimed the lives of over 100,000 people and displaced over 2.2 million through both military conflict and massacres and acts of genocide. The conflict was resolved by the Dayton Agreement, which was finalized on December 14, 1995. According to the American CIA, Serbian forces were responsible for 90 percent of the war crimes committed during the war.
  • First Casualty of the Bosnian War

    First Casualty of the Bosnian War
    100,000 people attended a peace rally in Sarajevo in protest of the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina on April 5, 1992. Serb snipers in a Holiday Inn opened fire on the crowd and killed 6 people. Suada Dilberović and Olga Sučić were the first two killed, considered to be the first casualties by Bosniaks and Croats.
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    Siege of Sarajevo

    The Siege of Sarajevo is the longest siege of a city in modern warfare. It began after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared seceded from Yugoslavia, when Serb forces surrounded the city with a force of 18,000, including heavy ordinance such as tanks and AA guns. Snipers also took up positions in the city. On average, there were 329 shell impacts per day. Nearly 10,000 people were killed or went missing during the seige. The seige ended on February 29, 1996, follwing the Dayton Agreement.
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    Foča Massacres

    The Foča Massacres, later determined to be a genocide, were a series of killings by Serb forces that occurred between April 7, 1992, and January 31, 1994. During the genocide, houses were systematically ransacked or burned down, while civilians were rounded up, men separated from women, and taken to concentration camps. Many were killed in the process and many women were repeatedly raped in the camps. In total, approximately 2,704 were displaced or killed.
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    Zvornik Massacre

    The Zvornik Massacre, which took place from April 8, 1992 to December of 1995, was the killing of between 700 and 900 Bosniaks and the ethnic cleansing of 40,000 in the city of Zvornik by several Serbian paramilitary groups. A total of 4,127 were killed or missing in the Zvornik area.
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    Prijedor Massacre

    The Prijedor Massacre, which began April 29, 1992, was the second largest massacre during the Bosnian War, second only to the Srebrenica Genocide. The event began when 400 Serb policemen were used to perform a coup in Prijedor. The massacre included both the killing of civilians using troops and artillery in the streets and their homes, as well as massacres in camps. In total, 5,200 Bosniaks and Croats were killed or missing in the city of Prijedor, and around 14,000 in the whole municipality.
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    Lašva Valley Ethnic Cleansing

    The Lašva Valley Ethnic Cleansing is the campaign carried out by Croat forces against Bosniaks living in the Lašva Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. This campaign, which took place from May 1992 to April 1993, included the rape and mass murder of Bosniaks. In addition, some were placed into camps and property was destroyed. It is believed that about 2,000 Bosniaks were killed during this time. A ceasefire was reached by Mate Boban and Alija Izetbegović on April 25, 1993.
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    Doboj Massacre

    The Doboj Massacre, which took place from May to October of 1992, began when Serbian forces took over Doboj. Following the takeover, the mass disarming and arrest of all non-Serb civilians began. Then, Serb forces systematically looted and destroyed Croat and Bosniak homes, then executed Croats and Bosniaks and raped the women. Those who were not executed outright were taken to camps and were tortured and put to work. In total, over 2,300 people were killed or missing following the massacre.
  • Glogova Massacre

    The Glogova massacre was the massacre of 65 Bosniak civilians by Serb forces in the Bratunac municipality. As a result of the massacre, the mosque, Bosnian Muslim homes, and other private property were destroyed, and a large part of Glogova was burned to the ground.
  • Zaklopača Massacre

    The Zaklopača Massacre, which occurred on May 16, 1992, was a massacre of Bosniaks by Serb forces. At least 83 Bosniaks were killed after the Serb forces confiscated the few weapons the village owned then blockaded its exits.
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    Višegrad Massacres

    The Višegrad Massacres were the killings of Bosniaks in the Višegrad municipality from May 19, 1992 until August of 1992 by Serbian police and military forces. According to the ICTY, Višegrad was “one of the most comprehensive and ruthless campaigns of ethnic cleansing in the Bosnian conflict", during which 1661 people were killed in the city of Višegrad and a total of about 3,000 in the municipality as a whole.
  • Ahatovići Massacre

    The Ahatovići Massacre was the June 2, 1992 massacre of 47 to 50 Bosniaks by Serb forces in Ahatovići in the Novi Grad municipality. Serbs took 64 males from 15 to 75 years old prisoner and held and tortured them until June 14, 1992, when they were put on a bus, driven to the village of Sokoline, where the bus was fired upon by the Serbs. 47 were killed, and s total of 50 bodies were exhumed in 1996.
  • Čemerno Massacre

    Čemerno Massacre
    The Čemerno massacre was an alleged massacre of Serbs on June 10, 1992, in the Ilijaš Municipality. According to the testimony of a survivor, the attack was made by Croats, although conflicting reports also say that it was carried out by Bosnian Muslims and the Bosnian Army. According to differing information, either 29, 31, or 32 individuals were killed.
  • Korićani Cliffs Massacre

    The Korićani Cliffs massacre was the murder of over 200 Bosniak and Croat men on August 21, 1992, which was carried out by a Bosnian Serb police unit at the Korićani Cliffs location on Mount Vlašić.
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    Croat-Bosniak War

    The Croat–Bosniak War was a conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, which was supported by the Croatian government, that lasted from June 19, 1992 to February 23, 1994. According to data, of the 10,448 documented casualties, both soldiers and civilians, 62% were Bosniaks, 24% were Croats, and 13% were Serbs.
  • Kravica Attack

    The Kravica Attack was the January 7 and 8 attack on Serb positions in the village of Kravica. Bosnian soldiers attacked the village but were met with resistance by armed guards as well as artillery fire from some houses. The Serbian newspaper "Glas javnosti" claimed there were 49 civilians killed, but the Serbian army claimed only 11 civilians and 35 soldiers were killed. According to the International Criminal Tribunal, this event was not a massacre due to the low civilian casualties.
  • Duša Massacre

    The Duša massacre, which occurred on January 15, 1993, was a massacre committed against Bosniak women and children by Croats forces in the village of Duša. The massacre consisted of an artillery attack in which 10 people were killed. Croat soldiers celebrated the killing afterward by transporting the remaining villagers to concentration camps and burning the village. There were no convictions made for these killings.
  • Štrpci Massacre

    The Štrpci Massacre was an event in which 19 people, 18 Bosniaks and one Croat, were abducted from a train at the Štrpci Station in Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Serb forces. The victims were robbed and physically abused before they were taken to Visegradska, a village near Višegrad. There, they were tortured and murdered. There remains were never found.
  • Ahmići Massacre

    Ahmići Massacre
    The Ahmići Massacre was the killing of Bosniak civilians by Croatian troops beginning at 5:30 am on April 16, 1993. Croat civilians were warned of the attack beforehand and urged to flee. On that day, telephone lines were cut and roads were blockaded in order to prevent information from leaking out. Troops used artillery to destroy buildings, burned buildings and people alive, and executed Bosniaks, most at point blank. In total, at least 103 were killed, including 32 women and 11 children.
  • Dobrinja Massacre

    The Dobrinja Massacre was an artillery bombardment on a youth soccer game from Serb positions. The attack consisted of the firing of two shells at 10:20am, which killed 13 people and wounded 133 more.
  • Stupni Do Massacre

  • First Markale Massacre

    First Markale Massacre
    The First Markale Massacre occurred between 12:10 and 12:15pm on February 5, 1994, in Sarajevo. A 120-mm mortar shell was reportedly fired from Bosnian government positions into a crowded marketplace, killing 68 and injuring 144. The injured were immediately given aid by rescue workers and UN troops.
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    Tuzla Massacre

    The Tuzla Massacre began at 8:55 pm on May 25 and was carried out by Serbian forces. The attack, which lasted until the 28th, consisted of the Serbians firing a number of artillery shells into the streets of Tuzla from a position near Panjik, a village 25km west of Tuzla. In total, 71 civilians were killed and 240 were wounded. The majority of the victims were between 18 and 25 years old.
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    Srebrenica Genocide

    The Srebrenica massacre occurred on July 11, 1995, and was one of the three massacres classified as a genocide during the Bosnian War. This genocide was committed by the Serbian army and Arkan's tigers against Bosniak civilians, leaving about 8,372 dead and committing ethnic cleansing against over 25,000 more. The invasion of Srebrenica occurred on July 9, the Dutch failed to prevent this, as well as hundreds of rapes and mass executions. The genocide ended on July 22, 1995.
  • Kravica Massacre

    Kravica Massacre
    The Kravica Massacre was the mass execution of male Bosniaks during the Srebrenica Massacre by Serb forces. They aimed to kill all men of military age, but killed many that were outside this age bracket. The victims were taken from the area around Sandići and were forced to walk to or moved by bus to Kravica. The massacre occurred in four warehouses owned by the Agricultural Cooperative in Kravica. Serb forces fired and threw grenades into the warehouses, killing between 1,000 and 1,500.
  • Second Markale Massacre

    Second Markale Massacre
    The Second Markale Massacre occurred on August 28, 1995, in the Sarajevo marketplace. The attack was carried out by Serbian forces, who officially denied involvement and blamed the Bosnian government. At about 11 am five mortar rounds were fired into the marketplace. There were fewer casualties than the first massacre, totalling at 37 dead and 90 wounded.
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    1995 NATO Bombing Campaign

    Code-named Operation Deliberate Force, this bombing campaign was conducted by 400 aircraft and 5000 personnel from 15 nations in order to stop the Serbian forces, who were attacking UN designated safe areas. This campaign was carried out in direct response to the Second Markale Massacre, which occurred on August 28. As a result, the Seige of Sarajevo was lifted and Slobodan Milošević, the President of Serbia, was forced to negotiate a peace treaty.
  • Erdut Agreement

    Signed November 12, 1995, between Croatia and Yugoslavia, this agreement officially ended the Croatian War of Independence. It is named after the village of Erdut where it was signed.
  • General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina Signed

    General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina Signed
    The General Framework Agreement for Peace, also known as the Dayton Agreement, was signed on December 14, 1995, in Paris, although the peace agreement was reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November. This treaty officially ended the three and a half year long Bosnian War, and included the exchange of different territories between the different groups in the region. After the war, 100,000 people were dead or missing and 2.5 million were displaced.