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AP Euro Events

  • 1453

    Fall of Byzantine Empire

    Fall of Byzantine Empire
    The buffer between Christian Europe and Muslim Middle East was gone.
    Made power unable to be re-established in the Balkans
    Big power shift over lots of territories from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans.
  • 1486

    Oration on the Dignity of Man

    Oration on the Dignity of Man
    Introduced new faith in human potential which was an exciting new idea at the time
    It pushed the idea of humanism and choosing one's own destiny forward to a larger audience
    It encouraged people to go and cultivate their own skills like painting or sculpting.
  • 1492

    Columbus' First Voyage

    Columbus' First Voyage
    Found new land that was unheard of to the European world
    Got many people excited about exploring for new idyllic land
    Laid claim to much more land for Spain
  • 1492

    Most Important Event in the 15th Century

    Most Important Event in the 15th Century
    Columbus's first voyage is the most important event of the15th century because it established colonization in America and slavery into Europe once more. This expanded the economy of many European countries since they had more land which meant more opportunity for money making with things like exports and trade. Explorers also came and killed off lots of the natives causing colonies to lack workers so people were enslaved like with Cortex conquering the Aztecs.
  • 1517

    95 Theses

    95 Theses
    Spread Luther's criticisms of the church to the masses
    Caused peasants to cause social revolution which Luther condemned
    Caused great religious warfare between countries over Catholicism and Lutheranism.
  • 1517

    Most Important Event of the 16th Century

    Most Important Event of the 16th Century
    The most important event was Martin Luther publishing his 95 Thesis. This is because it caused people to question the Catholic Church which had been in power for centuries and made them think about alternatives. This gave way to Protestant religions that saw corruption in the church and wanted to practice a religion that focused on the teachings of the Bible which they felt the church wasn't doing. This led to the church losing more and more power and even to De-Christianisation later in time.
  • 1519

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
    Contributed to 24 million natives dying in Mexico between 1519 and 1605 as he was killing the Aztecs for his conquering and overworking the survivors
    Contributed to the spread animal-borne diseases
    Got sugar plantations that relied on slave labor going after Europeans discovered the flavor of sugar
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Placed the king as the supreme head of the church
    Gave the church much less ruling power
    Church of England became a separate church
  • 1543

    On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

    On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    Introduced the idea of a heliocentric solar system
    Giorono Bruno taught and expanded upon Copernicus' ideas
    Caused Catholics and Protestants to denounce heliocentricity because it went against Christian teachings
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    Led to the selling of indulgences being banned
    Introduced methods to clean up clergy corruption
    Reaffirmed traditional church practices and ideas like purgatory and transubstantiation
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    Allowed for Lutherian Churches to be established in Germany
    Let princes decide if their state was Catholic or Lutherian
    It split up the unity of the Catholic Church
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Ended religious wars
    Introduced religious tolerance to France
    Temporarily ended ongoing violence due to religious intolerance
  • Defenestration of Prague

    Defenestration of Prague
    Caused Ferdinand II to go to war to make Bohemia Catholic to prevent a power imbalance
    Caused a civil war to start, that went international later
    Introduced a new war of funding wars by taxing people who supported leaders that Albrecht Von Wallnstein came up with
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    Men and women raised demands for social justice
    Made England into a republic
    Charles I got executed for treason
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    Let German princes choose the religion of their state
    Paved the way for how nations would solve political problems for centuries to come
    Put an emphasis on the "balance of power" which was the idea of keeping countries equally strong
  • Ottoman Siege of Vienna

    Ottoman Siege of Vienna
    Ottomans tried to attack the Austrian capital but failed and lost most of Hungary
    Caused the Ottoman Empire to stop expanding
    The Ottoman military tactics fell behind the rest of Europe
  • Principia Mathmatica

    Principia Mathmatica
    Introduced the concept of gravity
    Introduced the three laws of motion which are:
    -Every object moves in a straight line unless acted upon by a force.
    -The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force exerted and inversely proportional to the object's mass.
    -For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    Introduced the idea that the universe was infinite with no center.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    Parliament put power in the people's hands through representatives
    Made England a constitutional monarchy so that laws were determined more by a written constitution and not the king
    Secured faith in Protestantism in England since Catholics couldn't hold the throne.
  • Most Important Event of the 17th Century

    Most Important Event of the 17th Century
    The Glorious Revolution was the most important event of the century because it allowed for a parliament to rule England and spread power more evenly. This would help things like the Industrial Revolution since Parliament allowed the free spread of ideas more than a king probably would which furthered innovation like the steam engine.
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Argued that humans are born as "blank slates" and info was taken in with sensory input
    Argued that schools and social institutions should mold a person from childhood to adulthood
    Rejected the idea that people were born with innate ideas
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    Ended Louis XIV's ambition to create a partnership of French and Spanish monarchs
    Led to Louis XIV having even less land holdings in North America
    Lead Louis XIV to face a further decrease popularity among his subjects
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    Created an alliance between France, Austria, Russia.
    Created an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain
    Britain became Europe's greatest colonial power
  • The Social Contract

    The Social Contract
    Influenced democratic theories for the next two centuries
    Provided a solution to the conflict of individual freedom clashing with societal restrictions where people give up individual freedom for the common good of society
    Made some people see a participatory democracy was the right form of government while it made others see authoritarianism was the way to go
  • Invention of the Steam Engine

    Invention of the Steam Engine
    Allowed factories to be made anywhere rather than near bodies of water
    Lead to an increase in coal transport
    Lead to the British government giving out subsidies for canal construction
  • Most Important Event of 18th Century

    Most Important Event of 18th Century
    The invention of the steam engine was the most important event of the 18th century because it allowed for factories to be placed anywhere instead of needing to be by bodies of water. This allowed for a sharply increased production of goods which kickstarted consumerism and the Industrial Revolution.
  • Wealth of Nations

    Wealth of Nations
    Pushed the idea that people could focus on their own economic self interests while benefiting society
    Argued that nations should focus on industry over agriculture to go wealth
    Was adopted by laissez-fair economists for financial guidance
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    Created the National Assembly who claimed to be true representatives of the French people
    Caused Louis XVI to recognize the National Assembly as a legitimate government body
    Caused a rebel group called the sans-culottes to storm the Bastille
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    Caused 16,000 Paris citizens to be guillotined
    Robespierre who spearhead the Revolution was executed
    Caused the Committee of Public Safety to form which protect France from foreigners and domestic rebellion
  • Napoleon's Coup

    Napoleon's Coup
    Marked the end of the French Revolution era
    Allowed France to dominant the continent of Europe to spread revolutionary ideas
    Caused France's colonies to fight for independence
  • Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
    Gave way to the scorched earth policy which was when Russian soldiers would burn certain parts of land so the French soldiers couldn't live off it
    Caused less than 40,000 out of 600,000 French soldiers to return home
    Ended hegemony which was France's authority over others
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    Authorized Austria to put down an insurrection on Ferdinand I
    Authorized France to suppress a liberal revolution
    Supported Alexander's to send a Russian fleet to put down a revolt in Spanish colonies
  • 1848 Revolutions

    1848 Revolutions
    Didn't allow for a united. liberal German nation since Fredrick William IV didn't accept the crown
    Caused the death of 1,500 workingmen in the June Days
    Lead to lots of division between the working and middle classes
  • Crimean War

    Crimean War
    Caused the death of 250,000 people
    Made Russia's military look much less powerful
    Caused siege on Russias base of Sebastopol
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    Lead to Napoleon III's capture
    Liberals overthrew Second Empire and formed the Third French Republic
    Lead Germany to be Europe's dominant power
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    Introduced the combustion engine to Europe
    Put the idea of separate spheres where men went into the public work world while the women did work at home into full swing
    Caused the production of steel to increase 50 fold since 1850
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    Established the guidelines for dividing up African land among European nations. Ended up causing the Scramble for Africa
    Help spread the idea of the White Man's Burden into the minds of Europeans
    Caused tension in many countries like India and China
  • The Most Important Event of the 19th Century

    The Most Important Event of the 19th Century
    The most important event of the 19th century was the Berlin Conference since it established guidelines for dividing up land in Africa. This caused the scramble for Africa which reignited interest in colonizing foreign land for European nations. This caused conflict and turmoil for many years. Eventually European nations began losing the land that they had worked for and these countries became independent. It also seemed to stagnate colonization everywhere else.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    Expelled Austria from German Confederation
    Annexed several states into the German Confederation that had sided with Austria
    Didn't allow Prussian king to annex Austrian territories
  • Start of WWI

    Start of WWI
    Begun the idea of trench warfare where soldiers fought in protected trenches that had machine guns, land mines, and barbed wire
    Saw the introduction of tanks being used by the British
    Saw the introduction of of the Dreadnought which was a big steel British warship that added lots of power to the armies it was in
  • The Most Important Event in European History

    The Most Important Event in European History
    The most important event is European history is WWI because its repercussions could be felt for the decades to come. Not only did it usher in the age of modern warfare with tech like the machine gun, but it also set the stage for future conflicts, especially WWII. WWII then started the Cold War but it all loops back to WWI. WWI also enabled the Soviet Union to be founded in 1922.
  • End of WWI

    End of WWI
    Germany lost power after French General Foch sent lots of American troops to attack Germany
    Caused the Austrian-Hungarian emperor to abdicate his throne
    Caused the kaiser to flee Germany after its government collapsed
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Gave Japanese people rights in the Chinese mainland
    Denied the Jews their Palestine homeland that the British promised
    The Arabs did not gain their promised independence
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    Caused stocks to lose 2/3 of their value
    Caused thousands of banks and businesses to fall
    and caused spending, employment, and income to drop sharply
  • Hitler Being Appointed Chancellor

    Hitler Being Appointed Chancellor
    Caused Hitler to call for another round of parliamentary elections
    Caused Hitler to use propaganda to frighten and confuse voters
    Caused Hitler to accuse Communists of starting Reichstag Fire to suspend civil liberties and arrest many Communists
  • Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Civil War
    Caused Germans to attack Spanish town of Guernica
    Inspired Pablo Picasso to paint Guernica which showed terror and despair of the war
    Let Francisco Franco rule over Spain
  • Nazi Invasion of Poland

    Nazi Invasion of Poland
    Marked the start of WWII
    Saw the blitzkrieg which was the rapid deployment of German forces to overwhelm Polish troops
    Caused Germany to beat French and British armies
  • Operation Barbossa

    Operation Barbossa
    Caused the death of three million Soviet soldiers
    Prevented Stalin from attacking Germany like he may have been planning
    Caused some Soviet groups like Ukrainians to welcome Germany
  • End of WWII

    End of WWII
    Paved the way for the Cold War to start
    Caused the UN to form which promoted international peace and co operation
    Caused the death of 70–85 million people total
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    Caused Soviets to back down on their attacks toward East Berlin
    Caused West Europe to create the German Federal Republic in West Berlin
    Caused Eastern Europe to create the German Democratic Republic in East Berlin
  • Hungarian Rebellion

    Hungarian Rebellion
    Caused Imre Nagy to be hanged
    Caused Soviets to send in troops, killing thousands of Hungarian citizens
    Showed other countries that wanted to break away from Moscow that they should cooperate or face harsh consequences
  • Prague Spring

    Prague Spring
    Caused Alexander Dubček to introduce many changes to Czechoslovakia like no censorship and democratic reforms
    Caused Dubček and his supporters to be removed from power
    Caused Leonid Brezhnev to establish the Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    Caused East and West Germany to unite
    Caused many Communist leaders to lose power in their nations
    Enacted Democratic reforms in said nations
  • End of the USSR

    End of the USSR
    Brought job loss when the government closed inefficient state industries
    Places like Prague and Czech Republic got increased tourism
    Boris Yeltsin lost much of his popularity as Russia's economy suffered
  • The Most Important Event of the 20th Century

    The Most Important Event of the 20th Century
    The most important event of the 20th century was the fall of the USSR because it united Eastern Europe with the rest of the world for the first time in 70 years. It also let many countries that were previously part of the USSR rule themselves without the strict control of the Soviets.