Ancient History

  • Period: 3000 BCE to 2300 BCE

    Sumerian period/Early Dynastic period

    The Early Dynastic Period is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia that is generally dated to c. 2900-2350 BC C. and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods. It saw the development of writing and the formation of the first cities and states. It itself was characterized by the existence of multiple city-states. This development eventually led to the unification of much of Mesopotamia under the rule of Sargon, the first monarch of the Akkadian Empire.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 1800 BCE

    Akkadian Empire

    The Akkadian Empire was a great kingdom of Mesopotamia formed from the conquests of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC. C., considered by several historians as the first empire in the history of mankind. The domains of the Empire extended to the entire basin according to inscriptions even further, to Lebanon and the Mediterranean coast. According to these inscriptions, they would even go on raids
  • Period: 1800 BCE to 1350 BCE

    Babylonian empire

    The Assyrian Empire is one of the periods in which the history of Assyria is divided. The history of Assyria is usually divided into three main periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Assyrian Empire, and the Neo-Assyrian Empire. the Assyrian people came to rule powerful empires at various times, forming a substantial part of the Cradle of Civilization, which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, and Babylon.
  • Period: 612 BCE to 539 BCE

    Neo-babylonian empire

    The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period in the history of Mesopotamia that began in 612 BC. and ended in 539 BC. For the previous three centuries, the Babylonian Empire had been ruled by another people with whom it shared the Akkadian language, its northern neighbors, the Assyrians. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiraled into brutal civil wars.
  • Period: 27 to 476


    The Roman Empire was the period of Roman civilization after the Republic and characterized by an autocratic form of government. At its height it controlled a territory stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the shores of the Caspian and Red Seas in the east, and from the Sahara desert in the south to the banks of the Rhine and Danube rivers and the border with Caledonia in the north.
  • Period: 110 to 750

    Dark age

    The Dark Age is called the period of the history of Greece that runs from the collapse of the Mycenaean world to the archaic Greek era, characterized by the scarcity of reference sources, which is why it is very difficult to reconstruct the historical realities of this period. .​ Apparently the Dark Ages is an episode of Greek cultural decline and recession, but with the few data we have, it is not possible to be sure. In addition, the gradual replacement of bronze by iron occurs.
  • Period: 323 to 31

    Helenistic period

    It is called the Hellenistic period, a historical stage of Antiquity whose chronological limits are marked by two important political events: the death of Alexander the Great and the suicide of the last Hellenistic sovereign, Cleopatra VII of Egypt, after her defeat at the battle of Accio . It is the heritage of the Hellenic culture of classical Greece that the Greek world receives through the hegemony and supremacy of Macedonia.
  • Period: 500 to 323

    Classical period

    Classical Greece or Classical Age par excellence is the period in the history of Greece between the Ionia revolt and the reign of Alexander the Great, or more generically, the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is a historical time in which the power of the Greek polis and the cultural manifestations that developed in them reached their apogee.
  • Period: 509 to 27


    The Roman Republic was a period in the history of Rome characterized by the republican regime as a form of state, which extended, when the Roman Monarchy ended with the expulsion of the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, until 27 BC. C., date in which the Roman Empire had its beginning with the designation of Octavian as princeps and Augustus.
  • Period: 715 to 31

    Late period

    The late period of Egypt, also known as the Late Period, comprises the history of Ancient Egypt, when Psammetichus I founded the 26th dynasty, Saite, until the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great who accepted the surrender of the ruling Persian satrap of Egypt at that time. , Mazaces and marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Period of Egypt, which would stabilize after the death of Alexander with the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
  • Period: 750 to 500

    Archaic period

    The archaic period is a periodization of the history of ancient Greece, it came out of the previous period and the features of the Greek civilization were formed, which will be fully crystallized in the subsequent Classical Period. Between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. C. the Greek city-states or polis developed, which even expanded throughout the Mediterranean through colonization. Despite their great political fragmentation, the Greeks were building a common identity against other peoples
  • Period: 753 to 509


    The monarchy is a form of state in which a group integrated into the state, generally a family that represents a dynasty, embodies the national identity of the country and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of head of state. The political power of the monarch can vary from the purely symbolic (parliamentary monarchy), to being integrated into the form of government: with considerable but restricted executive powers (constitutional monarchy), to the completely autocratic
  • Period: 1550 to 1069

    New kingdom

    The New Kingdom of Egypt was the historical period that begins with the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose with the arrival to the throne of the rulers of Libyan origin. It is made up of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties. It takes place between the Second Intermediate Period and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. The last two dynasties, XIX and XX, are grouped under the title of the Ramesside Period.
  • Period: to

    Middle kingdom

    The Middle Kingdom begins with the reunification of Egypt under Mentuhotep II, in the middle of the XI dynasty, ending the so-called First Intermediate Period of Egypt. This era includes the second part of the XI dynasty and the XII dynasty. Some Egyptologists consider the 13th and 14th dynasties to also belong to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. It was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, in which political unity in Egypt is lost again.
  • Period: to

    Old kingdom

    The Old Kingdom of Egypt, also called the Old Kingdom, is the period of ancient Egyptian history. The Old Kingdom forged and consolidated the political, cultural and religious system that emerged during the protodynastic period, with the appearance of a monarchy whose most notable features are the absolute deification of the pharaoh and a strongly centralized political power.