The 16th Century

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  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martin Luther is born.

    Martin Luther is born.
    Martin Luther is famous for beginning the Reformation.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    16th Century

    One of the biggest events to occur in Western Europe was the Protestant Reformation, which ended an era of religious unity under the Roman Catholic Church. Religious Wars rocked European life well into the 17th century as a result. The events and people involved with the Reformation are significant to European History. The Age of Exploration also was a major part of the 16th century. New landholdings made Spain a prominent power in Europe and the world. Trade began to emerge on a global scale.
  • Apr 21, 1509

    Henry VIII

    Henry VIII
    The reign of Henry VIII of England begins. He starts the reformation in England after the Pope refuses to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He has five other wives after that. He is the father of Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Reformation Day

    Reformation Day
    Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on a church door in Wittenberg, beginning the Protestant Reformation. He had been angered by the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Conquest of Mexico, Peru

    Conquest of Mexico, Peru
    The Spanish under Cortes conquer Mexico. In 1531, Spain conquers Peru under Pizarro. These major events make Spain a world power of the time, and the influence of their armies, Catholicism and wealth is felt in both the New World and in Europe, leading to the Golden Age of Spain.
  • Aug 10, 1519

    Magellan's Circumnavigation

    Magellan's Circumnavigation
    Megellan dies during the voyage, but 18 of the crew return to Spain in 1522. This gave proof that the Earth was round and much larger than Columbus had estimated.
  • Jan 28, 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    Luther appears before Emporer Charles V and the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire. He refuses to recant and is declared an outlaw. However, Luther is too famous at this point to be killed.
  • Apr 24, 1533

    William the Silent is Born

    William the Silent is Born
    He is the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that started the Eighty Years' War. He is assassinated after Phillip II offers a reward for his death.
  • Dec 13, 1545

    The Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent
    Lasts until 1563. The Catholic council rejects Lutheran and Calvinist positions but does strengthen ecclesiastical discipline within its dioceses.
  • Jul 25, 1554

    Phillip II of Spain

    Phillip II of Spain
    The reign of Phillip II of Spain begins. During his reign, Spain is the foremost Western European power. He contributes to the 80 Years' War and launches the Spanish Armada.
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Queen Elizabeth I

    Queen Elizabeth I
    The reign of Queen Elizabeth I begins. She is one of the most powerful women of the 16th century. She was a patron of art and exploration. Though she said everyone in England must join the Anglican Church, she did not persecute Catholics. She executes Mary Queen of Scotts. The defeat of the Spanish Armada occurs during her reign.
  • Jan 1, 1568

    Eighty Years' War

    Eighty Years' War
    Calvinism spreads in the Netherlands, prompting the sacking of fancy Catholic churches. Phillip II sends 20,000 Spanish troops to pacify the Low Countries. The "Council of Blood" tribunal is opened on top of the Inquisition. In 1576, the provinces unite under Prince William of Orange. The seven northern provinces form the Union of Utrecht and declare independence from Spain.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    The marriage of Margaret Valois to the Protestant Henry of Navarre leads to an attack by the Catholics upon the Protestants across France, killing thousands of Huguenots.
  • The Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada
    The Spanish Armada of 130 vessels sails to invade England under Phillip II, who wanted to cut off support to the Dutch. The Spanish are defeated, preventing them from reimposing religious unity on Western Europe and beginning their decline in power. England's national sentiment is enhanced.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Henry IV of France grants religious liberty and full civil rights to the Protestant Huguenots. It is resented by the Catholics and is later annulled.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 1510
    to

    Columbian Exchange

    The exchange between Europe and the Americas includes many animals (horses, cattle), plants (potatoes, corn), diseases (small pox, syphilis) as well as people.