islamic timeline

By antesj
  • Dec 21, 632

    muhammad dies

    In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
  • Aug 24, 644

    Ali the fourth caliph in Islam is assassinated

    This caused a faction of some 4,000 strict traditionalists, known as Kharijites ("Seceders"), to abandon the fight. After defeating the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan, Ali would later be assassinated by the Kharijite Ibn Muljam. Ali's son Hasan was elected as the fifth Caliph only to concede his title to Mu'awiyah a few months later. Mu'awiyah became the sixth Caliph, establishing the Ummayyad Dynasty
  • Jun 6, 1099

    Christian crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Muslims.

    In the spring of 1097, a host of over 100,000 crusaders joined forces on the eastern side of the Bosphorus. The combined army then fought its way along the coast of the Mediterranean reaching the gates of Jerusalem in June of 1099.
  • Jul 20, 1187

    Saladin caputures Jerusalem for the Muslims

    He led Islamic opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, he ruled over Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, and Yemen. He led the Muslims against the Crusaders and eventually recaptured Palestine from the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem after his victory in the Battle of Hattin. As such, he is a notable figure in Kurdish, Arab, and Muslim culture. Saladin was a strict adherent of Sunni Islam and a disciple of the Qadiri Sufi order.
  • Apr 3, 1258

    Abbassid dynasty ends.

    The Abbasid caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids, was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs from all but the Al Andalus region.
  • Aug 13, 1529

    Suleiman the Magnificent becomes the ruler of the Ottoman empire

    Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed most of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large swathes of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.[4]
  • Abbas the Great gains control of the Safavid Empire

    Meanwhile, Iran's enemies, the Ottoman Empire and the Uzbeks, exploited this political chaos to seize territory for themselves. In 1587, one of the Qizilbash leaders, Murshid Qoli Khan, overthrew Shah Mohammed in a coup and placed the 16-year-old Abbas on the throne. But Abbas was no puppet and soon seized power for himself. He reduced the influence of the Qizilbash in the government and the military and reformed the army, enabling him to fight the Ottomans and Uzbeks and reconquer Iran's lost p
  • The Taj Mahal is built.

    The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer.
  • Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina

    Muhammad is born in Mecca. Orphaned by age 6 and cared for by his uncle. At the age of 9 or 12, he began working as a camel driver on trade routes between Arabia and Syria. By adulthood, Muhammad ran his own caravan, becoming a successful trade merchant, a livelihood he continued up until the time of his visions at age 40. As a trade merchant, Muhammad was exposed to Judaism, Christianity, and a variety of polytheistic religions.
  • Umayyad dynasty ends and Abbasid dynasty begins

    The 'Abassid caliphate (758-1258) was founded on two disaffected Islamic populations: non-Arabic Muslims and Shi'ites. For the most part, the Islamic impetus to the Abassid revolution lay in the secularism of the Umayyad caliphs. The Umayyads had always been outsiders—as a wealthy clan in Mecca, they had opposed Muhammad—and the secularism and sometime degeneracy that accompanied their caliphate delegitimized their rule for many devout Muslims