This makes it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other such requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal.
Huey P. Newton and Eldridge Cleaver found the Black Panther Party
The Black Panther Party was formed and primarily based in Oakland, CA.
10 Point Program drafted
Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale write the first draft of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) 10 - Point Program.
first member- Bobby Hutton
Sixteen-year-old Bobby Hutton becomes the first male recruit of the BPP.
Black Panther Party office opens
First BPP office opens at 5624 Grove Street, Oakland, CA.
Black Panther members patrol streets
*in Oakland, CA
Stokely Carmichael- "black power"
Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Seattle. He defines it as an assertion of black pride and "the coming together of black people to fight for their liberation by any means necessary." The term's radicalism alarms many who believe the civil rights movement's effectiveness and moral authority crucially depend on nonviolent civil disobedience.
Black Panther Party Community News- first issue
The first issue of the Black Panther Party Black Community News Service is published. This four-page mimeograph newspaper headlines "Why Was Denzil Dowell Killed?"
Armed Black Panther Party members invade California's capitol
protesting the legislation that limits the right to bear arms
Free Huey Movement rally
A "Free Huey" rally is held at the Oakland Auditorium on Newton's birthday. More than 5,000 supporters attend including Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, James Forman, Ron Dellums, and Peace and Freedom Party representatives.
Soul on Ice by Eldridge Cleaver published
becomes best seller
An FBI memo from J. Edgar Hoover outlines goals to his staff to "Prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups."
Oakland Police and Black Panther Party members have shoot out
Bobby Hutton, 17 year old Black Panther Party member- also the first male recruit, is shot and killed. An Oakland police officer is also killed. The shoot-out also results in the murder of Bobby Hutton; Eldridge Cleaver is wounded. Seven other Panthers are arrested.
Black Panthers help people register to vote
Panther volunteers register Oakland citizens to vote.
Eldridge Cleaver and United Nations
Eldridge Cleaver takes Panther case to the United Nations.
West Oakland BPP office opens
The West Oakland Panther office opened by Tommy Jones, Glen Stafford, and other dedicated Panther volunteers.
Free Huey Movement protest
More than 6,000 protestors come out in support of Huey Newton on the steps of the Alameda County Courthouse in Oakland. The national and international press is present as well as the National Guard.
Brown Berets support Free Huey Movement
The newly formed Brown Berets make their appearance on the courthouse steps in support of Huey.
West Oakland BPP Office Raided
The West Oakland Party office is raided and ransacked by police.
Bobby Seale and David Hilliard speak to 5000 people
Chairman Bobby Seale and Captain David Hilliard speak to a crowd of 5,000 across the street from the Democratic National Convention.
Huey P. Newton sentenced to prison for killing the Oakland police officer
Sentenced to 2-15 years. Court of appeals reverses the conviction and then there were two more trials- ends in mistrials.
Newton's jury deliberates for four days and in the end come up with a compromise verdict, convicting Huey of voluntary manslaughter. He is acquitted of the assault charge and the kidnap charges are dropped.
BPP and Hoover- "greatest threat"
J. Edgar Hoover declares the Black Panther Party the "greatest threat to the internal security of the country".
Huey Newton sentenced to prison
Huey P. Newton is sentenced to 2 to 15 years in state prison and removed from Oakland in five minutes. Judge Friedman refuses al meetings for granting a mistrial.
Oakland Police shoot at Black Panther Party Office
Four hours after Huey's conviction, two (admittedly drunk) on-duty Oakland police officers commit a drive-by shooting of the BPP office on Grove Street.
Eldridge Cleaver's parole revoked and sent to prison
Eldridge Cleaver's parole is revoked and he is sent back to prison.
Free Breakfast for Children Program started
The Panthers' Free Breakfast for Children Program (FBCP) is under way at St. Augustine's Church in Oakland.
Free Breakfasts start and numbers rapidly increase
Vallejo, CA, Black Panther Party starts Free Breakfast for Children Program with 35 children. Within a week the number of children grows to 110
Bobby Seale tours internationally
Panthers Bobby Seale and Masai Hewitt tour Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
Free Huey Movement rallies
"Free Huey" rallies are held in 20 major cities at U.S. federal district courts.
Liberation School starts
The Liberation School, a BPP survival program, starts.
United Front Against Facism conference
In Oakland, the United Front Against Fascism conference runs 3 days. The goal is to plan and discuss community control of police.
Bobby Seale kidnapped
Bobby Seale is kidnapped by Berkeley police after leaving the wedding of Masai Hewitt and Shirley Neely. He is immediately taken to San Francisco and charged with initiating the riots at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago and New Haven murder of Alex Rackley.
Free medical clinic
The BPP in Chicago opens a free medical health clinic.
Another major survival program.
LA Police attack BPP members
Los Angeles police department launches a full- scale attack on Southern California Panthers in a predawn raid. At two separate locations, 400 officers arrest Party members and children. During one shoot-out, Roland Freeman's body is riddled with bullets, but he survives.