American History 1441-1780

  • Juan de Onate lead Spanish to New Mexico

    Cause: Brought Spanish in order to establish the land and to mine for gold.
    Effect: Met resistance with Pueblo Indians and killed 800 men, women, and children Indians. Took 500 for slavery and cut off one foot of each surviving Indian.
  • English establish Jamestown

    Cause: King James I issued royal charters for colonization to Englan joint-stock companies. A group of London investors and a group of a hundred men built a fort called Jamestown.
    Effect: Became the first permanent English settlement.
  • Plundering for food

    Cause: Colonists grew dependent on the Indians for food.
    Effect: John Smith and his men plundered surrounding tribes for food. Powhatan decided to starve the colonists out.
  • First Africans Brought to Virginia

    Cause: Europeans brought Africans over to the New World.
    Effect: African worked as slaves to colonists.
  • Pilgrim emigration

    Cause: Emigrated to establish their own independent church.
    Effect: When they arrived nearly half were wiped out during the winter. Their beginning goal, however, was met.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Cause: Complaints about Pilgrim authority.
    Effect: The first document of self-government.
  • Puritans begin settling Massachusetts Bay

    Cause: Decided to emigrate to reform the church.
    Effect: Reformed the church but also took authority. Massachusetts Bay Company established.
  • Harvard College Found

    Cause: A need for higher education in N.A.
    Effect: Many colonists attended here with prior latin knowledge.
  • Bloudy Tenent of Persecution

    Cause: Religion
    Effect: Argument gained increasing appeal following religious excesses of the English Civil War
  • Navigation Acts

    Cause: Colonies
    Effect: Created legal and institutional structure of Britain's 18th century colonial system.
  • Virginia law makes Slavery hereditary

    Cause: Colonists realized that when slaves gaved birth their children could became slaves as well once they come of age.
    Effect: Children of slaves were forced to become slaves as well.
  • Half-Way Covenant

    Cause: Religion
    Effect: Members' children who had not experienced conversion themselves could join as "half-way" members in the Puritain religion.
  • South Carolina founded

    Cause: European exploration
    Effect: N.A. colonies expanded more.
  • King Phillip's War

    Cause: Indians and Puritan colonies fight for control of land.
    Effect: A complete disaster for Indians.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Cause: Conflict with tobacco.
    Effect: Indiscriminate murders of Indians and governments fear that this could happen again.
  • Strategic Outposts set up on the lakes

    Cause: French fur trades.
    Effect: Allowed for easier trades along the lakes.
  • Sovereignty and Goodness of God

    Cause: "Pilgrim's Progress"
    Effect: Mary Rowlandson's story of captivity among Indians
  • Glorious Revolution

    Cause: Colonists rise up to the colonial governments of King James II.
    Effect: A bloodless transition occured in the Parliament.
  • King William's War

    Cause: England replaced Holland as the dominant Atlantic power.
    Cause: A long struggle for colonial supremacy in N.A,
  • College of William and Mary Founded

    Cause: Further establishments of colonial America
    Effect: Gave education to colonists in Virginia.
  • Spanish declare Florida a refuge

    Cause: Spanish wanted to retaliate against the English.
    Effect: Runaway slaves went to Florida where they found refuge from their masters.
  • Wool Act, Hat Act

    Cause: Colonial enterprises
    Effect: Enactment that forbade colonial manufacture of products.
  • Plains Indians

    Cause: Spanish horses
    Effect: Indians took horses which furthered their hunting expertise.
  • Yale College Founded

    Cause: Harvard was found too liberal
    Effect: Gave more knowledge to colonists in America.
  • Iroquois sign treaty of neutrality w/ France

    Cause: Battle with the French
    Effect: Created allies with French and Indians.
  • Queen Anne's War

    Cause: Slavery
    Effect: Great Britain won the exclusive right to supply slaves to the Spanish in the Americas.
  • Virginia Slave Code established.

    Cause: Slavery populations growing in colonies.
    Effect: Masters were not held responsible if a slave died during punishment.
  • Saybrook Platform

    Cause: Religion
    Effect: Enacted a system of governance by councils of ministers and elders rather than congregations.
  • Poor Richard's Almanac

    Cause: Literacy
    Effect: Became widely known for the promotion of Enlightment.
  • Molasses Act

    Cause: Pressure on Parliament from West Indian planters.
    Effect: Placed a prohibitive duty on sugar products brought from foreign colonies to N.A.
  • George Whitefield

    Cause: Toured colonies.
    Effect: Left people hope that God would be responisve to their desire for salvation.
  • Stono Rebellion

    Cause: Slavery
    Effect: Slaves went on a rebellion killing others. Went into a field to celebrate accomplishments and were murdered by white townsmen.
  • Great Awakening

    Cause: Religion
    Effect: Became a wide spread colonial revival of religion.
  • Log College

    Cause: Tennant's wanted to create a college that would teahc ministries to like-minded people.
    Effect: Became known as Princeton University.
  • Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes

    Cause: Harsh conditions of slavery
    Effect: John Woolman pointed out that all people are equal.Anti-slavery sentiment did not become large until the Civil War.