18th Century Europe

  • Period: to

    18th Century

  • Invention of the Seed Drill

    Invention of the Seed Drill
    Jethro Tull invented the seed drill in 1701. It revolutionized the farming world because of the increase in speed that could be obtained. Before his invention, people had to scatter seeds by hand. The seed drill planted seeds into grooves in the land, increasing the probably for the seeds to take root.
  • Popularization of Crop Rotation

    Popularization of Crop Rotation
    Charles Townshend introduced the concept of Crop Rotation to Great Britain. Crop Rotation was the principle to rotate through different crops on different parts of a field. It increased soil health because on growing season would produce corn, which uses Nitrogen in the soil, while the next would grow beans, which release Nitrogen back into the soil. This boosted the economy as well because of the increase in crops able to be made.
  • Height of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Height of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
    The Transatlantic Slave Trade was when slaves were shipped from Africa to North America/Caribbean for labor. This spanned over hundreds of years, but the largest numbers of slaves were taken in the eighteenth century. The slave trade took place because it was economically advantageous for the Europeans to obtain free labor for their plantations in the New World. However, it led to devastating consequences for Africa, including depopulation and poor development.
  • Second Agricultural Revolution

    Second Agricultural Revolution
    Mechanization, transportation innovations, and irrigation developments led to more efficient cultivation and distribution of agriculture. Technologies such as the seed plow allowed crops to be farmed faster and with higher success. Agriculture turned from small scale to industrial mass production. Because of this, many rural farmers lost their land and profit and had to move to urban areas for work.
  • Increase in Illegitimacy

    Increase in Illegitimacy
    Illegitimacy was the term used to refer to offspring being made out of wedlock. At this time, it was highly frowned upon because of the traditional marriage ideals. It was caused by less control of societies. As urbanization and industrialization grew, families were not as unified and individual freedom grew.
  • Enclosure Act

    Enclosure Act
    Before the Enclosure Movement, rural farmers could use their land to cultivate crops at a small scale. With the Enclosure Act, land could be taken away from these farmers to be used by bigger scale farmers. This led to more economic prosperity in agriculture because the industrial farmers had more land to farm on. However, this was detrimental to the rural farmers because they lost their last, and many had to find another way of making money.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    The American colonies believed that they were getting treated unfairly. Between the quartering act, the taxation without representation, and the closing of trade ports, the American settlers became agitated with Great Britain. Britain's army had to fight was on the American front. The Spanish, Dutch, and French also became involved in the war.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The peasant class of France was unhappy with the inequality between them and the bourgeoisie. Prices were too high for them to buy items necessary for survival, like food. On July 14th, 1789, the peasants stormed the Bastille. They continued with the ruling of Napoleon, and thousands died through the course of the revolution.
  • Haitian Revolution

    Haitian Revolution
    The French established permanent settlements in Haiti, taking control of their indigenous people and forcing them to work as slaves. African slaves were also forced to work on the Europeans' land. Thousands of slaves rebelled against the colonists, and they were all led by Toussaint Louverture. France was already weakened by their own revolution, which allowed Haiti to gain independence.
  • Invention of the Smallpox Vaccine

    Invention of the Smallpox Vaccine
    English scientist Edward Jenner found that cowpox could be used to create immunity in humans to smallpox. He is seen as one of the founders of immunology. Before Jenner, hundreds of thousands of Europeans would die of smallpox each year. After publishing and promoting his research, the smallpox vaccines led to greater lifespans. Medical research would continue to build off of this discovery in the future.