WWI Events

  • Balkan Wars

    Balkan Wars
    There were two Balkan Wars. The first Balkan war was fought in the Balkan Peninsula, between Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro, and the Ottoman Empire from October 8, 1912 to May 30, 1939. The second Balkan War was fought between Serbia and Greece against Bulgaria in June--August of 1913. As a result, Greece gained southern Macedonia and the island of Crete, while Serbia gained the Kosovo region and gained northern and central Macedonia (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023).
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
    Inspector general of the Austro-Hungarian army, Archduke Franz Ferdinand agreed to attend a series of military exercises in June 1914 Bosnia-Herzegovin. A secret society, The Black Hand, plotted to assassinate Ferdinand to protect their independence. On the way to town hall, a bomb was thrown at Ferdinand and his wife, but failed. Soon after, Ferdinand and his wife were shot by Gavrilo Princip. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand triggered the beginning of WWI (Greenspan, 2020).
  • World War 1 begins

    World War 1 begins
    When Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, Austria-Hungary didn’t immediately declare war because they knew that Russia would support them, as well as Russia’s other allies. So they instead awaited German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II, who ensured Germany's alliance. On July 28 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Within a week, Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, and Belgium faced off against Austria-Hungary and Germany (History.com Editors, 2021).
  • Lusitania Sinks

    Lusitania Sinks
    The Lusitania was a British passenger ship. According to international naval “prize laws,” ships must issue a warning before attacking an enemy ship. However, when Germany learned that Britain was transporting military weapons and supplies from the US to Europe, they ignored this law. On May 7, 1915, as Lusitania was going from New York to Liverpool, a German U-boat submarine struck Lusitania without warning, killing 1,195 people (McDermott, 2022).
  • Battle of Verdun

    Battle of Verdun
    The Battle took place from February 21, 1916 to December 15, 1916 and was the longest battle in history. German Chief of General Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn planned to have a swift victory for his country on the Western Front. Falkenhayn’s plan was to take the surrounding area and force the French to fight. He then planned to use artillery strikes to minimize his casualties. About 400,000 casualties were lost for the French, and about 350,000 were lost for Germany (Imperial War Museums, 2023).
  • Battle of Gallipoli, Somme

    Battle of Gallipoli, Somme
    The Battle of the Somme was an offensive from British and French forces to fight the Germans on the Western Front. Before the actual battle in late 1916, German defenses were bombarded for seven days straight, meaning the Germany army had already been weakened. The battle happened at The Western Front, near the Somme River in France. The Battle of Somme may be considered to be the most devastating fight in World War I for Britain (Imperial War Museums, 2023).
  • Zimmermann Note

    Zimmermann Note
    The Zimmerman Telegram was sent by German foreign secretary Arthur to the German minister, Heinrich von Eckhart in Mexico on January 16, 1917. The note revealed plans to resume submarine warfare and proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. The message was intercepted by Britain and was given to the United States on February 24. Its publication caused outrage and factored in having the US joining the war (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023).
  • The Russian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution
    Peasants, workers, and soldiers, also known as serfs, were being mistreated. They used Russia’s instability after the slaughter of World War I to their advantage by destroying their economy and prestige. Nicholas II held Russia’s power from 1894 until the revolution in 1917. The main revolutionary leaders were Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. The goal of the revolution was to overthrow the unfair Romanov dynasty and Russian Imperial rule (Brodsky, 2009).
  • U.S. enters war

    U.S. enters war
    On the passenger ship, Lusitania, 128 American passengers were killed. Still, President Woodrow Wilson decided to stay neutral. Despite this, some Americans decided to join the war anyway. When Germany continued to strike ships, U.S. finally cut diplomatic ties with Germany on February 3. After the Zimmermann Telegram was discovered, the Senate voted to declare war and two days later, the House of Representatives voted to adopt a war resolution against Germany (History.com Editors, 2021).
  • Russia Withdraws from War

    Russia Withdraws from War
    After domestic political unrest, military setbacks, and economic difficulties, Russia withdrew from WWI. In addition to worsening pre-existing economic problems, the pressure of the war caused food shortages and inflation. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed in 1918, marked the USSR's withdrawal from World War I, which ended the Eastern Front. As a result, the Central Powers were able to concentrate their forces on the Western Front, putting more strain on the Allies (History for Kids, 2023).
  • Battle of Chateau-Thierry

    Battle of Chateau-Thierry
    After the U.S. and French soldiers pushed the Germans back from the Marne at Chateau-Thierry by American and French divisions, the Allies sought to take Belleau Wood. The Battle of Chateau-Thierry took place in late July of 1918. The American Expeditionary Force sought to end the four-years of trench warfare. Which is what the battle-ready 42nd Division of the National Guard did in late July 1918 when it made its first major attack near the Chateau-Thierry (Goldenberg, 2018).
  • Battle of Argonne

    Battle of Argonne
    The Battle of Argonne was a series of final confrontations on the Western Front in World War I. General Ferdinand Foch and the Allied powers planned offensives against Germany. In the Meuse valley toward the Meziere and Sedan rail center, the American and French armies flanked German troops on the west of Meuse River and of the Argonne Forest. On November 10, the American and French troops finally reached Sedan (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023).
  • Armistice of WWI

    Armistice of WWI
    Germany and the Allies were tired of war and citizens were starting to rebel. This led to the German government requesting for an armistice with the United States. The Armistice demanded that Germany evacuate France and Belgium and that they surrender any war material. The Armistice only stopped the fighting on the Western Front while the Treaty of Versailles was negotiated. Meanwhile, as the Allies maintained their naval blockade, Germany’s existing food shortage was worsened (Sawer, n.d.)
  • The Treaty of Versailles signed

    The Treaty of Versailles signed
    The Treaty of Versailles demanded that Germany territories be placed under observation by countries around the globe and that they give up territory. Also, Germany lost its colonies in other countries, their military power was cut down, and was required to pay war reparations to the Allies. In the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, it was signed by the Allied Powers and Germany on June 28, 1919, and started on January 10, 1920. (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023).
  • First Meeting of the League of Nations

    First Meeting of the League of Nations
    A few years after World War I, the League of Nations was established on January 10, 1920. On November 15, 1920, representatives of 41 nations gathered in Geneva, Switzerland for their first official meeting. This was declared by M. Hymans, who explained that the meeting should be summoned by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson. The meeting mainly took place for the purpose of coming up with new methods for peaceful settlements (United Nations, n.d.).