Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Serbian Black Hand member Gavrilo Princip. Ferdinand was heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Word War One
The first World War between the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.
Kaiser William II
Kaiser William II promised German support for Austria-Hungary against Serbia
Austria-Hungary Sends Ultimatum to Serbian Government
Austria-Hungary demanded Serbia answer within two days because of the risk of war. Serbia only accepted 2 conditions.
Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia
Assassination of Ferdinand gave Austria-Hungary pretext to declare war on Serbia and stop the Pan-Slavic movement that would destroy their southern states.
Russia mobilized it's forces in response to Austro-Hungarian demands on Serbia. Russia was allies with Serbia.
Germany Issues Ultimatum to Russia and France
Germany warned Russia that if they continued to fully mobilize against Austria-Hungary would mean war with Germany
Germany Declares War on Russia
Russia refused to meet German demands, so Germany declared war on the Czarist Empire.
France mobilizes to support Russia
Germany Declares War on France, Invades Belgium
Germany had to invade Belgium to follow through with the Schlieffen Plan.
Britain Declares War on Germany
Britain had promised Belgium support if they were ever in danger, and they were urged by their allies (Triple Entente) to support them.
Germany Invades France
The French Fifth Army suddenly retreated from the Battle of Mons, leaving the British right flank open. The BEF had to retreat, leaving France open for invasion.
Battle of Tannenberg
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russian and German forces. The battle resulted in a great loss of the Russian Second Army, and the suicide of it's commanding general, Alexander Samsonov. Germany captured Tannenburg and the Masurian Lakes.
The First Battle of the Marne
The First Battle of the Marne was the climax of the German advance in France. The battle resulted in an ally victory.
The First Batlle of Ypres
The Battle of Ypres was at the end of the race to the sea. After allied forces stopped the German advance through Belgium and eastern France, they raced to the northward sea to outflank each other. This race ended in Ypres.
Turkey Enters War on Germany's Side
Although the Ottoman Empire signed a secret treaty with the German Empire on August 2, 1914, they didn't join the war until the Ottoman Navy bombarded Russian ports on October 29, 1914.
The First Zeppelin Raid on Britain
Germany invaded Britain with zeppelins, showering bombs over East Anglia.
The Second Battle of Ypres
The Second Battle of Ypres was the first battle that the Germans used masses of mustard gas. The 1st Canadian Division defeated the German army.
Allied Troops Invade Gallipoli
Allies launched a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, the Turkish controlled land mass on the northern border of Dardanelles.
The "Lusitania" Sunk by German U-Boat
British ocean liner Lusitania was torpedoed by a German submarine off the South Coast of Ireland. of 1959 passengers and crew, 1198 were drowned, including 128 Americans.
Italy Declares War on Germany and Austria-Hungary
The decision of war came largely from the assurances they received in the Treaty of London, signed April 1915. They would control territory on Austro-Hungarian border.
Ally Troops Start Evacuating Gallipoli
Allies begin a full retreat from Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey.
Conscription Introduced in Britain
The British government passed the Military Service Act, which singled out men from 18 to 40 years old to be recruited for military service.
Battle of Verdun
The longest and largest battle of WWI, ending on 18 December. It took place on the Western Front between German and French forces.
British Forces Surrender at Kut, Mesopotamia
The single largest surrender of British troops at the time, under command of Sir Charles Townshend. 13,000 troops surrendered.
Battle of Jutland
The Battle of Jutland was the only major naval conflict in WWI. The British Fleet had a numerical advantage over the German High Sea Fleet with a ratio of 37:27 heavy units and 113:72 in light support craft. German Admiral Reinhard Scheer retreated, while British Admiral John Jellicoe retained control of the North Sea.
Beginning of the Brusilov Offensive
General Alexei Brusilov convinced his superiors to let him attack. Although there was no initial confidence in him, Brusilov nearly destroyed the 4th Austro-Hungarian Army, and took 200,000 prisoners. Attacks began in the city of Lutsk.
Start of the Battle of the Somme
British forces launch massive offense against German forces in the Somme River area of France. 100,000 British soldiers poured out of the trenches into no-man's-land, expecting to rush German trenches. German machine guns massacred to infantry. It was the heaviest day of casualties in British history.
First Use of Tanks at the Somme
British launched primitive tanks against German forces. Although German counterattacks caused failure for the tanks, General Douglas Haig saw prominent victory with the tanks, and ordered to produce hundreds more.
End of the Brusilov Offensive
The Brusilov Offensive had reached it's limits in resources. The Brusilov Offensive cost the Austro-Hungarian Army a total of 1.5 million soldiers (400,00 prisoners) and about 25,000 square km of land. The losses of the Austro-Hungarian Army left Germany to fight alone for the rest of WWI.
Germany's Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Starts
Germany starts sinking ships that are heading to and from Britain.
USA Declares War on Germany
The decision to declare war on Germany came from the sinking of the cruiser, the "Lusitania", which killed 27 Americans. With this attack, the United States began to turn on Germany.
The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele)
Allies launched new offensive on German lines in the Flanders region. Canadian and British forces captured the village, but there was no big breakthrough on the Western Front.
Armistice between Germany and Russia Signed
Armistice signed between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Central Powers (Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the German Empire, and the Ottoman Empire.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Signed
This peace treaty was signed by Russia and the Central Powers to end Russia's participation in World War One. The treaty was forced on the Bolshevik government because of the threat of further German and Austro-Hungarian advances.
Second Battle of the Marne Started, German Army Starts to Collapse
Germans begin final offensive, but have been deceived by false French trenches. When the German armies approached the real trenches they were met with heavy fire, trapping and surrounding them.
Germany Requests Armistice to Allies
German Chancellor Max von Baden sends a telegraph of President Woodrow Wilson in Washington, DC., requesting an armistice.
German Navy begin Mutiny
Sailors in the German High Seas Fleet refuse orders from the German Admiral to go to sea to launch one last attack on the British Navy.
Turkey Makes Peace
Turkey makes peace with allies.
Austria Makes Peace
Austria makes peace with the allies.
Kaiser William II Abdicated
Chancellor Prince Max von Baden announced Kaiser William II's abdication before he consented to an abdication.
Germany Signs Armistice with the Allies
The official date of the end of World War One.
Paris Peace Conference
The meeting of the Allies to set terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Signing of the Treaty of Versaillies
The most important treaty that brought World War One to an end, signed exactly 5 years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.