Ww1

World War I

  • Allies

    Allies
    By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe.
    The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of
    mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the
    Central Powers
  • Trench warfare

    Trench warfare
    Where armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over
    three years. Elsewhere, the fighting was just as devastating and inconclusive.
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. As
    the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist
    Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the
    Archduke and his wife Sophie. Princip was a member of the
    Black Hand, an organization promoting Serbian nationalism.
    The assassinations touched off a diplomatic crisis.
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    invaded Belgium, following
    a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called
    for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick
    drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the
    two German armies would defeat Russia.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    Russian troops advanced
    quickly into German territory but
    were turned back at the Battle
    of Tannenberg,
    endured defeats and continued
    to retreat. By the end of 1915
    they had suffered about 2.5 million
    casualties >>
    caused massive bread shortages
    in Russia.
    Revolutionaries ousted the czar
    in March 1917, established
    a provisional government and overthrew the
    provisional government. They set
    up a Communist state and sought
    peace with the Central Powers.
  • Germany blockades the North Sea

    Germany blockades the North Sea
    Germany responded to the British
    blockade with a counterblockade by U-boats. Any British or Allied ship found in the
    waters around Britain would be sunk—and it would not always be possible to
    warn crews and passengers of an attack.
    One of the worst disasters occurred on May 7, 1915, when a U-boat sank the
    British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the
    1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans.
    Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life.
  • Sinking of the British Liner Lusitania

    Sinking of the British Liner Lusitania
    One of the worst disasters occurred when a U-boat sank the
    British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the
    1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on
    the grounds that the liner carried ammunition. Despite Germany’s explanation,
    Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life. American
    public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers.
  • Sinking of British liner Arabic

    Sinking of British liner Arabic
    in August 1915, a U-boat
    sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United
    States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger
    ships.
  • American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing

    American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing
    American infantrymen were
    nicknamed doughboys, possibly because of the white belts
    they wore, which they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough.”
    Most doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or
    small towns where they lived, and the sophisticated sights
    and sounds of Paris made a vivid impression. However,
    doughboys were also shocked by the unexpected horrors of
    the battlefield and astonished by the new weapons and tactics
    of modern warfare.
  • Sinking of French Passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French Passenger liner Sussex
    But in March 1916 Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed
    French passenger steamer, the Sussex. The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers,
    including Americans, were killed or injured. Once again the United States warned
    that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics.
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    During the First Battle of the Somme—
    which lasted until mid-November—the British suffered
    60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million,
    yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands.
  • Wilson's "Peace without Victory" Speech

    Wilson's "Peace without Victory" Speech
    After the election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances. The
    attempt failed. In a speech before the Senate in January 1917, the president called
    for “a peace without victory. . . . a peace between equals,” in which neither side
    would impose harsh terms on the other. Wilson hoped that all nations would join
    in a “league for peace” that would work to extend democracy, maintain freedom of
    the seas, and reduce armaments.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    Where a heavy guard of destroyers
    escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of
    1917, shipping losses had been cut
    in half.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    The main regulatory body was the War
    Industries Board (WIB). It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918
    under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch (bE-rLkP), a prosperous businessman.
    The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to
    increase efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products—for
    instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150.
    The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
  • Anti-German sentiment in America

    Anti-German sentiment in America
    Finally, in a burst of anti-German fervor, Americans changed the name of
    German measles to “liberty measles.” Hamburger—named after the German city
    of Hamburg—became “Salisbury steak” or “liberty sandwich,” depending on
    whether you were buying it in a store or eating it in a restaurant. Sauerkraut was
    renamed “liberty cabbage,” and dachshunds turned into “liberty pups.”
  • Zimmermann note

    Zimmermann note
    The overt acts came. First was the
    Zimmermann note, a telegram from
    the German foreign minister to the
    German ambassador in Mexico that was
    intercepted by British agents. The
    telegram proposed an alliance between
    Mexico and Germany and promised
    that if war with the United States broke
    out, Germany would support Mexico in
    recovering “lost territory in Texas, New
    Mexico, and Arizona.” Next came the
    sinking of four unarmed American merchant
    ships, with a loss of 36 lives.
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    When Russia pulled out of the war in 1917, the Germans shifted their armies from
    the eastern front to the western front in France. By May they were within 50 miles
    of Paris. The Americans arrived just in time to help stop the German advance at
    Cantigny in France. Several weeks later, U.S. troops played a major role in throwing
    back German attacks at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood. In July and
    August, they helped win the Second Battle of the Marne.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    To meet the government’s need for more
    fighting power, Congress passed the Selective Service Act. The act required men to register with the government
    in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end
    of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act.
  • Espionage & Sedition Acts

    Espionage & Sedition Acts
    Congress passed the
    Espionage Act, and in May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act. Under the Espionage
    and Sedition Acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20
    years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane,
    or abusive about the government or the war effort.
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Wilson's Fourteen Points
    Even before the war was over, Wilson
    presented his plan for world peace. On January 18, 1918, he
    delivered his now famous Fourteen Points speech before
    Congress. The points were divided into three groups. The
    first five points were issues that Wilson believed had to be
    addressed to prevent another war
  • 369th Infantry Regiment

    369th Infantry Regiment
    About 400,000 African Americans served in the armed
    forces. More than half of them served in France. African
    American soldiers served in segregated units and were excluded
    from the navy and marines. Most African Americans were
    assigned to noncombat duties, although there were exceptions.
    The all-black 369th Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front
    lines than any other American regiment.
  • Shell shock. trench foot, and trench mouth

    Shell shock. trench foot, and trench mouth
    Constant bombardments and other experiences
    often led to battle fatigue and “shell shock,” a term coined during World
    War I to describe a complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered.
    Physical problems included a disease called trench foot, caused by standing
    in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks
    or boot. A painful infection of the gums and throat,
    called trench mouth, was also common among the soldiers.
  • Conscientious objector

    Conscientious objector
    During the fighting in the Meuse-Argonne
    area, one of America’s greatest war heroes, Alvin York, became famous.
    A redheaded mountaineer and blacksmith from Tennessee, York sought
    exemption as a conscientious objector, a person who opposes warfare
    on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.”
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson established
    the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board
    decisions could lose their draft
    exemptions. “Work or fight,” the
    board told them. However, the
    board also worked to improve factory
    conditions. It pushed for an
    eight-hour workday, promoted
    safety inspections, and enforced
    the child labor ban.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    To
    help produce and conserve food,
    Wilson set up the Food Administration
    under Herbert Hoover.
    Instead of rationing food, he
    called on people to follow the
    “gospel of the clean plate.” He
    declared one day a week “meatless,”
    another “sweetless,” two
    days “wheatless,” and two other
    days “porkless.” Restaurants
    removed sugar bowls from the
    table and served bread only after
    the first course.
  • Raising money for the war

    Raising money for the war
    The United States spent about $35.5 billion on the war effort.
    The government raised about one-third of this amount through taxes, including
    a progressive income tax (which taxed high incomes at a higher rate than low
    incomes), a war-profits tax, and higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury
    goods. It raised the rest through public borrowing by selling “Liberty Loan” and
    “Victory Loan” bonds.
  • Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"

    Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"
    Creel persuaded the nation’s artists and advertising agencies to create thousands
    of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures promoting the war. He
    recruited some 75,000 men to serve as “Four-Minute Men,” who spoke about
    everything relating to the war: the draft, rationing, bond drives, victory gardens,
    and topics such as “Why We Are Fighting” and “The Meaning of America.”
  • Eugene V. Debs

    Eugene V. Debs
    The Espionage and Sedition Acts targeted socialists and labor leaders.
    Eugene V. Debs was handed a ten-year prison sentence for speaking out
    against the war and the draft. The anarchist Emma Goldman received a
    two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No
    Conscription League.
  • Emma Goldman

    Emma Goldman
    The anarchist Emma Goldman received a
    two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No
    Conscription League. When she left jail, the authorities deported her to
    Russia. “Big Bill” Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of
    the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they
    urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay.
  • Big Bill Haywood and the IWW

    Big Bill Haywood and the IWW
    “Big Bill” Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of
    the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they
    urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay. Haywood
    was sentenced to a long prison term. (He later skipped bail and fled to
    Russia.) Under such federal pressure, the IWW faded away.
  • Victor Burger

    Victor Burger
    The House of Representatives refused to seat Victor
    Berger, a socialist congressman from Wisconsin, because of his antiwar views.
    Columbia University fired a distinguished psychologist because he opposed the
    war. A colleague who supported the war thereupon resigned in protest, saying,
    “If we have to suppress everything we don’t like to hear, this country is resting
    on a pretty wobbly basis.”
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies
    AustriaHungary
    surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors
    mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly.
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary
    councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital,
    Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary
    councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital,
    Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly
    decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue
    fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month
    of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce,
    that ended the war.
  • Agreements made in the Treaty of Versailles

    Agreements made in the Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles established
    nine new nations—including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia—and shifted
    the boundaries of other nations. It carved five areas out of the Ottoman Empire
    and gave them to France and Great Britain as mandates, or temporary colonies.
    Those two Allies were to administer their respective mandates until the areas were
    ready for self-rule and then independence.
  • Reparations and the War Guilt Clause

    Reparations and the War Guilt Clause
    Humiliated Germany and forced them to admit sole responsibility for starting World War I. Although
    German militarism had played a major role in igniting the war, other European
    nations had been guilty of provoking diplomatic crises before the war.
    Furthermore, there was no way Germany could pay the huge financial
    reparations. Germany was stripped of its colonial possessions in the Pacific, which
    might have helped it pay its reparations bill.