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WW1 Timeline

  • 1.) Allies

    1.) Allies
    also known as the triple entente, consisted of France, Britain, Russia.
  • 2.) Central Powers

    2.) Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of
    mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the
    Central Powers.
  • 3.) 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    3.) 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. As
    the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist
    Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the
    Archduke and his wife Sophie. Princip was a member of the
    Black Hand, an organization promoting Serbian nationalism.
    The assassinations touched off a diplomatic crisis. On
    July 28, Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a
    short war against Serbia.
  • 4.) Schlieffen Plan

    4.) Schlieffen Plan
    On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following
    a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called
    for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick
    drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the
    two German armies would defeat Russia. As German
    troops swept across Belgium, thousands of civilians fled in
    terror. In Brussels, the Belgian capital, an American war
    correspondent described the first major refugee crisis of
    the 20th century.
  • 7.) Germany Blockades the North Sea

    7.) Germany Blockades the North Sea
    Any British or Allied ship found in the
    waters around Britain would be sunk—and it would not always be possible to
    warn crews and passengers of an attack.
    One of the worst disasters occurred on May 7, 1915, when a U-boat sank the
    British liner Lusitania. Of the
    1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on
    the grounds that the liner carried ammunition.
    Americans became outraged with Germany, American
    public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers.
  • 8.) Sinking of the British Liner Lusitania

    8.) Sinking of the British Liner Lusitania
    One of the worst disasters occurred on May 7, 1915, when a U-boat sank the
    British liner Lusitania (lLQsG-tAPnC-E) off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the
    1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on
    the grounds that the liner carried ammunition. Despite Germany’s explanation,
    Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life. American
    public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers.
  • 9.) Sinking of the British Liner Arabic

    9.) Sinking of the British Liner Arabic
    Despite this provocation, President Wilson ruled out a military response in
    favor of a sharp protest to Germany. Three months later, in August 1915, a U-boat
    sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United
    States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger
    ships.
  • 5.) Battle of the Somme

    5.) Battle of the Somme
    The scale of slaughter was horrific. During the First Battle of the Somme—
    which began on July 1, 1916, and lasted until mid-November—the British suffered
    60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million,
    yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands. This bloody trench
    warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over
    three years. Elsewhere, the fighting was just as devastating and inconclusive.
  • 6.) Trench Warfare

    6.) Trench Warfare
    There were three main kinds of trenches—front line, support,
    and reserve. Soldiers spent a period of time in each kind of trench. Dugouts,
    or underground rooms, were used as officers’ quarters and command posts.
    Between the trench complexes lay “no man’s land”—a barren expanse of mud
    pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire. Periodically, the soldiers
    charged enemy lines, only to be mowed down by machine gun fire.
  • 10.) Sinking of the French Passenger Liner Sussex

    10.) Sinking of the French Passenger Liner Sussex
    But in March 1916 Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed
    French passenger steamer, the Sussex. about 80 passengers,
    including Americans, were killed or injured. Once again the United States warned
    that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics.
    Germany agreed, but there was a condition: if the United States could not
    persuade Britain to lift its blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would
    consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • 11.) Wilson's "Peace Without Victory" Speech

    11.) Wilson's "Peace Without Victory" Speech
    After the election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances. The
    attempt failed. In a speech before the Senate in January 1917, the president called
    for “a peace without victory. . . . a peace between equals,” in which neither side
    would impose harsh terms on the other. Wilson hoped that all nations would join
    in a “league for peace” that would work to extend democracy, maintain freedom of
    the seas, and reduce armaments.
  • 12.) Zimmerman Note

    12.) Zimmerman Note
    The overt acts came. First was the
    Zimmermann note, a telegram from
    the German foreign minister to the
    German ambassador in Mexico that was
    intercepted by British agents. The
    telegram proposed an alliance between
    Mexico and Germany and promised
    that if war with the United States broke
    out, Germany would support Mexico in
    recovering “lost territory in Texas, New
    Mexico, and Arizona.” Next came the
    sinking of four unarmed American merchant
    ships, with a loss of 36 lives.
  • 13.) Bolshevik Revolution

    13.) Bolshevik Revolution
    Finally, events in Russia removed
    the last significant obstacle to direct
    U.S. involvement in the war. In March,
    the oppressive Russian monarchy was
    replaced with a representative government. Now supporters
    of American entry into the war could claim that this was a
    war of democracies against brutal monarchies.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    To meet the government’s need for more
    fighting power, Congress passed the Selective Service Act in
    May 1917. The act required men to register with the government
    in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end
    of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. Of this
    number, almost 3 million were called up. About 2 million troops
    reached Europe before the truce was signed, and three-fourths of
    them saw actual combat.about one in five was foreign-born.
  • 15.) 369th Infantry Regiment

    15.) 369th Infantry Regiment
    The all-black 369th Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front
    lines than any other American regiment. Two soldiers of the 369th, Henry
    Johnson and Needham Roberts, were the first Americans to receive France’s
    highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre—the “cross of war.”
  • 16.) Convoy System

    16.) Convoy System
    German U-boat attacks on merchant ships in the Atlantic were a serious threat
    to the Allied war effort. American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the
    British to try the convoy system, in which a heavy guard of destroyers
    escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of
    1917, shipping losses had been cut
    in half
  • 17.) American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing

    17.) American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing
    American Expeditionary Force led by
    General John J. Pershing included men from widely
    separated parts of the country. American infantrymen
    nicknamed doughboys, because of the white belts
    they wore, they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough.”
    Most doughboys had never ventured far from the farms/towns where they lived, sophisticated sights
    and sounds of Paris made a vivid impression. However,
    were shocked by unexpected horrors of
    the battlefield, astonished by new weapons/tactics
    of modern warfare.
  • 18.) Shell Shock, Trench Foot, and Trench Mouth

    18.) Shell Shock, Trench Foot, and Trench Mouth
    Constant bombardments
    often led to battle fatigue and “shell shock,” a complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered.
    disease called trench foot, caused by standing
    in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks
    or boots. First the toes would turn red or blue, then they would become numb,
    and finally they would start to rot.solution: amputate the toes,
    and in some cases the entire foot.painful infection of the gums and throat,
    called trench mouth,
  • 19.) Second Battle of the Marne

    19.) Second Battle of the Marne
    In July and
    August,U.S. Troops helped win the Second Battle of the Marne. The tide had turned
    against the Central Powers. In September, U.S. soldiers began to mount offensives
    against the Germans at Saint-Mihiel and in the Meuse-Argonne area.
  • 20.) Conscientious Objector

    20.) Conscientious Objector
    conscientious objector, a person who opposes warfare
    on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.”
  • 21.) Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies

    21.) Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies
    On November 3, 1918, AustriaHungary
    surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors
    mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly.
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary
    councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital,
    Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • 22.) Establishment of the German Republic

    22.) Establishment of the German Republic
    On November 3, 1918, AustriaHungary
    surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors
    mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly.
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary
    councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital,
    Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • 23.) Cease-Fire and Armistice

    23.) Cease-Fire and Armistice
    Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly
    decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue
    fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month
    of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce,
    that ended the war.
  • 24.) War Industries Board

    24.) War Industries Board
    The main regulatory body was the War
    Industries Board (WIB). It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918
    under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch (bE-rLkP), a prosperous businessman.
    The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to
    increase efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products—for
    instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150.
    The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
  • 25.) National War Labor Board

    25.) National War Labor Board
    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson established
    the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board
    decisions could lose their draft
    exemptions. “Work or fight,” the
    board told them. However, the
    board also worked to improve factory
    conditions. It pushed for an
    eight-hour workday, promoted
    safety inspections, and enforced
    the child labor ban
  • 26.) Food Administration

    26.) Food Administration
    To
    help produce and conserve food,
    Wilson set up the Food Administration
    under Herbert Hoover.
    Instead of rationing food, he
    called on people to follow the
    “gospel of the clean plate.” He
    declared one day a week “meatless,”
    another “sweetless,” two
    days “wheatless,” and two other
    days “porkless.” Restaurants
    removed sugar bowls from the
    table and served bread only after
    the first course.
  • 27.) Raising Money for the War

    27.) Raising Money for the War
    The United States spent about $35.5 billion on the war effort.
    The government raised about one-third of this amount through taxes, including
    a progressive income tax (which taxed high incomes at a higher rate than low
    incomes), a war-profits tax, and higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury
    goods. It raised the rest through public borrowing by selling “Liberty Loan” and
    “Victory Loan” bonds.
  • 31.) Eugene V. Debs Arrest

    31.) Eugene V. Debs Arrest
    Eugene V. Debs was handed a ten-year prison sentence for speaking out
    against the war and the draft.
  • 28.) Committee on Public Information and the "Four Minute Men"

    28.) Committee on Public Information and the "Four Minute Men"
    To popularize the war, the government
    set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public
    Information The head of the CPI was a former muckraking
    journalist named George Creel.
    Creel persuaded the nation’s artists and advertising agencies to create thousands
    of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures promoting the war. He
    recruited some 75,000 men to serve as “Four-Minute Men,” who spoke about
    everything relating to the war
  • 19.) Anti-German Sentiment in America

    19.) Anti-German Sentiment in America
    The most bitter attacks were directed against the
    nearly 2 million Americans who had been born in Germany, but other foreignborn
    persons and Americans of German descent suffered as well.
    Many Americans with German names lost their jobs. Orchestras refused to
    play the music of Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms.
    and librarians removed books by German authors from the shelves. People even
    resorted to violence against German Americans, flogging them or smearing them with tar and feathers
  • 30.) Espionage and Sedition Acts

    30.) Espionage and Sedition Acts
    In June 1917 Congress passed the
    Espionage Act, and in May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act. Under the Espionage
    and Sedition Acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20
    years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane,
    or abusive about the government or the war effort.
    Violated first amendment
  • 32.) Emma Goldman

    32.) Emma Goldman
    The anarchist Emma Goldman received a
    two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No
    Conscription League. When she left jail, the authorities deported her to
    Russia.
  • 33.) Big Bill Haywood and the IWW

    33.) Big Bill Haywood and the IWW
    “Big Bill” Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of
    the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they
    urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay. Haywood
    was sentenced to a long prison term. (He later skipped bail and fled to
    Russia.) Under such federal pressure, the IWW faded away.
  • 34.) Victor Burger

    NO INFORMATION GIVEN LIKE CMON
  • 35.) Wilson's 14 Points

    35.) Wilson's 14 Points
    8, he
    delivered his now famous Fourteen Points speech before
    Congress. The points were divided into three groups. The
    first five points were issues that Wilson believed had to be
    addressed to prevent another war:
    The next eight points dealt with boundary changes.
    The fourteenth point called for the creation of an international
    organization to address diplomatic crises like those
    that had sparked the war.
  • 36.) Agreements made in the Treaty of Versailles

    36.) Agreements made in the Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles established
    nine new nations—including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia—and shifted
    the boundaries of other nations. It carved five areas out of the Ottoman Empire
    and gave them to France and Great Britain as temporary colonies.
    The treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army. It also required
    Germany to return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France and to pay
    $33 billion to the Allies.
  • 37.) Reparations and the War Guilt Clause

    37.) Reparations and the War Guilt Clause
    First, the treaty humiliated Germany. It contained a war-guilt clause
    forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting World War I. Although
    German militarism had played a major role in igniting the war, other European
    nations had been guilty of provoking diplomatic crises before the war.
    Furthermore, there was no way Germany could pay the huge financial
    reparations. Germany was stripped of its colonial possessions in the Pacific, which
    might have helped it pay its reparations bill.