World War I

By jamzlai
  • Allies

    The Triple Entente, later known as allies, consisted of France, Russia, and Britain.
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire; an empire of mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks.
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. As
    the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist
    Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the
    Archduke and his wife Sophie.
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    Germany invaded Belgium using a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan, which called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia.
  • Germany Blockades the North Sea

    Germany Blockades the North Sea
    Germany responded to the British blockade with a counter blockade by U-boats. Any British or Allied ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk—and it would not always be possible to warn crews and passengers of an attack.
  • Sinking of British liner Lusitania

    Sinking of British liner Lusitania
    On May 7, 1915, a U-Boat sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. 1,198 lives were lost, and 28 of those were Americans.
  • Sinking of British Liner Arabic

    Sinking of British Liner Arabic
    Another British liner sunk from a German U-Boat in August 1915, and 2 Americans drowned.
  • American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing

    American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing
    Led by General John J. Pershing, it included men from many widely separated parts of the country
  • Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth

    Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth
    Shell shock is a term used during World War I to describe a complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered. Trench foot was a disease caused by standing in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks or boots. Trench mouth was a painful infection to the gum and throat.
  • Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex
    The United States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships. But in March 1916 Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer, the Sussex. The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers,
    including Americans, were killed or injured.
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    The first battle of Somme lasted from July to November, and the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands.
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    Armies fought in trenches (dugouts) and they fought for mere yards of ground.
  • Zimmermann note

    Zimmermann note
    A telegram from the German foreign minister to the
    German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents.
  • Wilson's "Peace without Victory speech"

    Wilson's "Peace without Victory speech"
    After the election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances. The attempt failed. Wilson made a speech for the senate on January of 1917, “a peace without victory. . . . a peace between equals,” Wilson hoped that all nations would join in a “league for peace” that would work to extend democracy, maintain freedom of
    the seas, and reduce armaments.
  • Conscientious objector

    Conscientious objector
    A person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.”
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    The main regulatory body was the War Industries Board. It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch.
  • Anti-German sentiment in America

    Anti-German sentiment in America
    As soon as war was declared, attacks on civil liberties, both
    unofficial and official, erupted. The main targets of these attacks were Americans from other nations, especially those from Germany and Austria-Hungary. The most bitter attacks were directed against the Americans who had been born in Germany, but other foreign born persons suffered as well.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    Revolutionaries ousted the czar in March 1917 and established a provisional government. In November, the Bolsheviks, led by
    Lenin and Trotsky, overthrew the provisional government. They set
    up a Communist state and sought peace with the Central Powers.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    The act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act.
  • 369th Infantry Regiment

    369th Infantry Regiment
    More than 400,000 African Americans fought in the war, and half of those served in France. The 369th Infantry Regiment was an all African-American regiment that saw more continuous duty on the front lines than any other African-American unit.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    Congress passed the Espionage Act in June 1917, and in May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act. Under these acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government.
  • Eugene V. Debs arrest

    Eugene V. Debs arrest
    The Espionage and Sedition Acts targeted socialists and labor leaders. Eugene V. Debs was handed a ten-year prison sentence for speaking out against the war and the draft.
  • Emma Goldman

    Emma Goldman
    The anarchist Emma Goldman received a two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No Conscription League. When she left jail, the authorities deported her to Russia.
  • Victor Berger

    Victor Berger
    Victor Berger, a socialist congressman from Wisconsin, was denied to sit down by the House of representatives because of his antiwar views.
  • Big Bail Haywood and the IWW

    Big Bail Haywood and the IWW
    Big Bill Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of
    the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay. He was sentenced to a long prison term.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    A heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half.
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Wilson's Fourteen Points
    President Wilson presented his plan for world peace even before the war was over. He delivered his (now famous) Fourteen Points speech for Congress.
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson established the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft exemptions.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    To help produce and conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover. Instead of rationing food, he
    called on people to follow the “gospel of the clean plate.”
  • Raising Money for the War

    Raising Money for the War
    The United States spent about $35.5 billion on the war effort.
    The government raised about one-third of this amount through taxes, including a progressive income tax, a war-profits tax, and higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods. It raised the rest through public borrowing by selling “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” bonds.
  • Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"

    Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"
    The government set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public Information to popularize the war. Four minute men spoke about everything relating to the war: the draft, rationing, bond drives, and victory gardens.
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    The turning point of the war. Allies advance steadily after defeating
    the Germans.
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the allies
    On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    On the same day that Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies, German sailors mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic.
  • Cease-Fire and armistice

    Cease-Fire and armistice
    Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce,
    that ended the war on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918.
  • Agreements made in the Treaty of Versailles

    It established nine new nations including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia and shifted the boundaries of other nations. It carved five areas out of the Ottoman Empire and gave them to France and Great Britain as mandates, or temporary colonies.
  • Reparations and the War Guilt Clause

    The Treaty of Versailles required Germany to return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France and to pay reparations amounting to $33 billion to the Allies. War guilt clause forced Germany to admit its responsibility for starting WWI.