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World War I

  • Allies

    Allies
    The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia.
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the Central Powers.
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    As the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist
    Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the Archduke and his wife Sophie. Princip was a member of the Black Hand, an organization promoting Serbian nationalism. The assassinations touched off a diplomatic crisis. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a short war against Serbia.
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following
    a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called
    for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick
    drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the
    two German armies would defeat Russia.
  • Battle of Somme

    Battle of Somme
    During the First Battle of the Somme— which began on July 1, 1916, and lasted until mid-November—the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands.
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    There were three main kinds of trenches—front line, support,
    and reserve. Soldiers spent a period of time in each kind of trench. Dugouts, or underground rooms, were used as officers’ quarters and command posts. Between the trench complexes lay “no man’s land”—a barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire. Periodically, the soldiers charged enemy lines, only to be mowed down by machine gun fire. They fought for mere yards of land.
  • Britain blockades the North Sea

    Britain blockades the North Sea
    American ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge the blockade and seldom reached their destination. Second, Germany found it increasingly difficult to import foodstuffs and fertilizers for crops. By 1917, famine stalked the country. An estimated 750,000 Germans starved to death as a result of the British blockade. Americans had been angry at Britain’s blockade, which threatened freedom of the seas and prevented American goods from reaching German ports.
  • Sinking of British liner Arabic

    Sinking of British liner Arabic
    a U-boat sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships.
  • Wilson's Peace without Victory Speech

    Wilson's Peace without Victory Speech
    a peace without victory. . . . a peace between equals,” in which neither side would impose harsh terms on the other. Wilson hoped that all nations would join in a “league for peace” that would work to extend democracy, maintain freedom of the seas, and reduce armaments.
  • Zimmerman note

    Zimmerman note
    a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The
    telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the United States broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    Revolutionaries ousted the czar in March 1917 and established a provisional government. In November, the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, overthrew the provisional government. They set up a Communist state and sought peace with the Central Powers.
  • Sinking of British liner Lusitania

    Sinking of British liner Lusitania
    U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on the grounds that the liner carried ammunition. Despite Germany’s explanation, Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life. American public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers
  • Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex
    March 1916 Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer, the Sussex.The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers, including Americans, were killed or injured. United States warned that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics.Again Germany agreed, but there was a condition: if the United States could not persuade Britain to lift its blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May 1917. The act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the British to try the convoy system, in which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half.
  • Shell Shock, Trench Foot, and Trench Mouth

    Shell Shock, Trench Foot, and Trench Mouth
    Constant bombardments and other expe- riences often led to battle fatigue and “shell shock". Trench foot caused by standing in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks or boots. First the toes would turn red or blue, then they would become numb, and start to rot. The only solution was to amputate the toes, and in some cases the entire foot. A painful infection of the gums and throat, called trench mouth, was also common among the soldiers.
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies
    On November 3, 1918, Austria- Hungary surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized rev- olutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic.
  • Second Battle of Marne

    Second Battle of Marne
    U.S. troops played a major role in throw- ing back German attacks at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood. In July and August, they helped win the Second Battle of the Marne. The tide had turned against the Central Powers.
  • Conscientious objector

    Conscientious objector
    A redheaded mountaineer and blacksmith from Tennessee, York sought exemption as a conscientious objector, a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.”
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    established in 1917,reorganized in 1918 under Bernard M. Baruch. Encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and eliminate waste.WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.Under the WIB, industrial production in the United States increased by about 20 percent. However, the WIB applied price controls only at the wholesale level. As a result, retail prices soared, to almost double what they had been before the war. Corporate profits soared as well.
  • Raising money for the war

    Raising money for the war
    The United States spent about $35.5 billion on the war effort. The government raised about one-third of this amount through taxes, including a progressive income tax, a war-profits tax, and higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods. It raised the rest through public borrowing by selling “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” bonds.
  • Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"

    Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men"
    To popularize the war, the govern- ment set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public Information.Creel persuaded the nation’s artists and advertising agencies to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures promoting the war. He recruited some 75,000 men to serve as “Four Minute Men,” who spoke about everything relating to the war: the draft, rationing, bond drives, victory gardens, and topics such as “Why We Are Fighting” and “The Meaning of America.”
  • Anti-German sentiment in America

    Anti-German sentiment in America
    Americans changed the name of German measles to “liberty measles.” Hamburger—named after the German city of Hamburg—became “Salisbury steak” or “liberty sandwich,” depending on whether you were buying it in a store or eating it in a restaurant. Sauerkraut was renamed “liberty cabbage,” and dachshunds turned into “liberty pups.”
  • Eugene V. Debs arrest

    Eugene V. Debs arrest
    Eugene V. Debs was handed a ten-year prison sentence for speaking out against the war and the draft.
  • Emma Goldman

    Emma Goldman
    The anarchist Emma Goldman received a two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No Conscription League. When she left jail, the authorities deported her to Russia.
  • Big Bill Haywood and the IWW

    Big Bill Haywood and the IWW
    Big Bill” Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay. Haywood was sentenced to a long prison term. (He later skipped bail and fled to Russia.) Under such federal pressure, the IWW faded away.
  • Victor Berger

    Victor Berger
    The House of Representatives refused to seat Victor Berger, a socialist congressman from Wisconsin, because of his antiwar views.
  • Wilson's 14 points

    Wilson's 14 points
    No secret treaties among nations.Freedom of the seas.Tariffs and other economic barriers should be lowered or abolished to foster free trade.Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety,lessening the possibility of military responses” during diplomatic crises.Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial peoples as well as the interests of the
    imperialist powers.The next eight points dealt with boundary changes based on self-determination
  • Agreements made in the Treaty Of Versailles

    Agreements made in the Treaty Of Versailles
    he Treaty of Versailles established nine new nations:Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia and shifted the boundaries of other nations. It carved five areas out of the Ottoman Empire and gave them to France and Great Britain as temporary colonies. The treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army. It also required Germany to return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France and to pay reparations, or war damages, amounting to $33 billion to the Allies.
  • Reparations and the War Guild Clause

    Reparations and the War Guild Clause
    Germany to return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France and to pay reparations, or war damages, amounting to $33 billion to the Allies. a war-guilt clause forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting World War I. Although German militarism had played a major role in igniting the war, other European nations had been guilty of provoking diplomatic crises before the war.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May 1917. The act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. Of this number, almost 3 million were called up.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the British to try the convoy system, in which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half
  • Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth

    Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth
    Constant bombardments and other expe- riences often led to battle fatigue and shell shock.Physical problems included a disease called trench foot, caused by standing in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks or boots. The only solution was to amputate the toes, and in some cases the entire foot. A painful infection of the gums and throat, called trench mouth, was also common among the soldiers.
  • Second Battle of Marne

    Second Battle of Marne
    Several weeks later, U.S. troops played a major role in throw- ing back German attacks at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood. In July and August, they helped win the Second Battle of the Marne. The tide had turned against the Central Powers.
  • Conscientious objector

    Conscientious objector
    a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, Thou shalt not kill
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the allies
    On November 3, 1918, Austria- Hungary surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized rev- olutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • Establishment of German Republic

    Establishment of German Republic
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized rev- olutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    The main regulatory body was the War Industries Board. It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch, a prosperous business- man. The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing prod- ucts—for instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150. The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
  • 369th Infantry Regiment

    369th Infantry Regiment
    The all-black 369th Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front lines than any other American regiment. Two soldiers of the 369th, Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts, were the first Americans to receive France’s highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre—the “cross of war.”
  • American Expeditionary Force and General John J Pershing

    American Expeditionary Force and General John J Pershing
    The American Expeditionary Force led by General John J. Pershing, included men from widely separated parts of the country. American infantrymen were nicknamed doughboys. Most doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or small towns where they lived, and the sophisticated sights and sounds of Paris made a vivid impression. However, doughboys were also shocked by the unexpected horrors of the battlefield and astonished by the new weapons and tac- tics of modern warfare.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    On November 3, 1918, Austria- Hungary surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized rev- olutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson estab- lished the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft
    exemptions. “Work or fight,” the board told them. However, the board also worked to improve factory conditions. It pushed for an eight-hour workday, promoted safety inspections, and enforced the child labor ban.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    “gospel of the clean plate” He declared one day a week “meatless,” another “sweetless,” two days “wheatless,” and two other days “porkless.” Restaurants removed sugar bowls from the table and served bread only after the first course. American food shipments to the Allies tripled. Hoover also set a high government price on wheat and other staples. Farmers responded by putting an additional 40 million acres into production and increased their income by almost 30 percent.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    In June 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act, and in May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act. Under the Espionage and Sedition Acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, pro- fane, or abusive about the government or the war effort.
  • 369th Infantry Regiment

    369th Infantry Regiment
    Most African Americans were assigned to noncombat duties, although there were exceptions. The all-black 369th Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front lines than any other American regiment. Two soldiers of the 369th, Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts, were the first Americans to receive France’s
    highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre—the “cross of war.”
  • American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing

    American Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing
    he American Expeditionary Force, led by General John J. Pershing, included men from widely separated parts of the country. American infantrymen were nicknamed doughboys, possibly because of the white belts they wore, which they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough.” Most doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or small towns where they lived, and the sophisticated sights and sounds of Paris made a vivid impression