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World War 1

  • Allies

    Allies
    By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe.
    The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia. The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
  • 369th Infantry Regiment

    369th Infantry Regiment
    Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts, were the first Americans to receive France’s highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre the “cross of war.”The 8th training period took place partly in the United States and partly in Europe. During this time the men put in 17-hour days on target practice, bayonet drill, kitchen duty, and cleaning up. Women weren't allowed to join but many denied the benefits and 13k accepted where and served as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators.
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the Central Powers. The alliances provided a measure of international security because nations were reluctant to disturb the balance of power. As it turned out, a spark set off a major conflict.
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. As
    the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the
    Archduke and his wife Sophie. Princip was a member of the
    Black Hand, an organization promoting Serbian nationalism.
    The assassinations touched off a diplomatic crisis. On
    July 28, Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a
    short war against Serbia.
  • Schrieffen Plan

    Schrieffen Plan
    On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following
    a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called
    for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick
    drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the
    two German armies would defeat Russia. As German
    troops swept across Belgium, thousands of civilians fled in
    terror. In Brussels, the Belgian capital, an American war
    correspondent described the first major refugee crisis of
    the 20th century
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over three years. Elsewhere, the fighting was just as devastating and inconclusive.
  • Germany blockades the North Sea

    Germany blockades the North Sea
    It blockaded the German coast to prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting through.They also extended the blockade to neutral ports and mined the entire North Sea. First, American ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge the blockade and seldom reached their destination. Second, Germany found it increasingly difficult to import foodstuffs
    and fertilizers for crops. By 1917, famine stalked the country. 750,000 Germans starved to death.
  • Sinking of British liner Arabic

    Sinking of British liner Arabic
    Despite this provocation, President Wilson ruled out a military response in favor of a sharp protest to Germany. Three months later, in August 1915, a U-boat sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships.
  • Sinking of the British liner Luistania

    Sinking of the British liner Luistania
    One of the worst disasters occurred on May 7, 1915, when a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on the grounds that the liner carried ammunition. Despite Germany’s explanation, Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life. American public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers.
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    During the First Battle of the Somme which began on July 1, 1916, and lasted until mid-November the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands. This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over three years. Elsewhere, the fighting was just as devastating and inconclusive.
  • Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex
    March 1916 Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer, the Sussex. The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers, including Americans, were killed or injured. Once again the United States warned that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics. Germany agreed, but there was a condition: if the United States could not persuade Britain to lift its blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany can renew unrestricted submarine WF.
  • Emma Goldman

    Emma Goldman
    The anarchist Emma Goldman received a two-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine for organizing the No Conscription League. When she left jail, the authorities deported her to
    Russia.
  • Big Bill Haywood and the WW1

    Big Bill Haywood and the WW1
    “Big Bill” Haywood and other leaders of the Industrial Workers of
    the World (IWW) were accused of sabotaging the war effort because they urged workers to strike for better conditions and higher pay. Haywood was sentenced to a long prison term. (He later skipped bail and fled to Russia.) Under such federal pressure, the IWW faded away
  • Wilson's "Peace without victory speech"

    Wilson's "Peace without victory speech"
    After the election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances. The attempt failed. In a speech before the Senate in January 1917, the president called for “a peace without victory. . . . a peace between equals,” in which neither side would impose harsh terms on the other. Wilson hoped that all nations would join
    in a “league for peace” that would work to extend democracy, maintain freedom of the seas, and reduce armaments.
  • ZImmermann Note

    ZImmermann Note
    First was the Zimmermann note, a telegram from
    the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the United States broke out, Germany would support Mexico in
    recovering “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” Next came the sinking of four unarmed American merchant ships, with a loss of 36 lives.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    This was a group of radical Russian socialists led by Vladimir Lenin who seized power in 1917 following the overthrow of the czar. From this revolution, the Soviet Union was eventually formed - the world's first great communist powerful
  • Selective Service Act of 1917(400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces)

    Selective Service Act of 1917(400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces)
    Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May 1917. The act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. Of this number, almost 3 million were called up. About 2 million troops reached Europe before the truce was signed, and three-fourths of them saw actual combat. Most of the inductees had not attended high school, and about one in five was foreign-born.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    German U-boat attacks on merchant ships in the Atlantic were a serious threat to the Allied war effort. American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the British to try the convoy system, in which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half.
  • AMerican Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing

    AMerican Expeditionary Force and General John J. Pershing
    The American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I . During the United States campaigns in World War I the AEF fought in France alongside French and British allied forces in the last year of the war, against German forces.
  • Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth

    Shell shock, trench foot, and trench mouth
    new weapons and tactics of WWI led to horrific injuries and hazards. The fighting men were surrounded by filth, lice, rats, and polluted water that caused dysentery. “shell shock,” a term coined during World War I to describe a complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered. trench foot, caused by standing in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks or boots. an infection in throat called trench mouth was also common among the soldiers.
  • Conscientious objector

    Conscientious objector
    During the fighting in the Meuse-Argonne area, one of America’s greatest war heroes, Alvin York, became famous. A redheaded mountaineer and blacksmith from Tennessee, York sought
    exemption as a conscientious objector, a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies
    It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products—for instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150. The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
    Under the WIB, industrial production in the United States increased by about 20 percent.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.Schoolchildren spent their after-school hours growing tomatoes and cucumbers in public parks. As a result of these and similar efforts, American food shipments to the Allies tripled.
  • Raising money for the war

    Raising money for the war
    The United States spent about $35.5 billion on the war effort.
    The government raised about one-third of this amount through taxes, including a progressive income tax taxed high incomes at a higher rate not low incomes), a war-profits tax, and higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods. Also government loans. Movie stars spoke at rallies in factories, in schools, and on street corners. Treasury Secretary William G. McAdoo would refuse to buy war bonds.
  • Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men" (Newspapers, sculptures, posters, cartoons)

    Committee on Public Information and the "four minute men" (Newspapers, sculptures, posters, cartoons)
    To popularize the war, the government set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public Information. Propaganda is a kind of biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions. a former muckraking journalist named George Creel. 75,000 men to serve as “Four-Minute Men,” who spoke about everything relating to the war: the draft, rationing, bond drives, victory gardens, and topics such as “Why We Are Fighting”/"The Meaning of America.”
  • Victor Berger

    Victor Berger
    The House of Representatives refused to seat Victor
    Berger, a socialist congressman from Wisconsin, because of his antiwar views. Columbia University fired a distinguished psychologist because he opposed the war. A colleague who supported the war thereupon resigned in protest, saying, “If we have to suppress everything we don’t like to hear, this country is resting on a pretty wobbly basis.”
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    The Second Battle of Marne took place near the Marne River in the Champagne Region of France. This was the last offensive push from the Germans in World War 1. It resulted in a victory for the Allies. german attack french on both sides, British soldiers, and Americans join stalling germans, germans failures allow allies to plan counter-attack, Germans order retreat, germans defeated.
    allies taken 30,000 prisoners, 800 guns, 3000 machines guns and 170,000 casualties germans.
  • Austria-Hungry surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-Hungry surrenders to the Allies
    On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary
    surrendered to the Allies. That same day, German sailors
    mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly.
    Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary councils.
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war
  • National war Labor Board

    National war Labor Board
    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson established the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft
    exemptions. “Work or fight,” the board told them. However, the
    board also worked to improve factory conditions. It pushed for an
    eight-hour workday, promoted safety inspections, and enforced
    the child labor ban
  • Anti German sentiment in America

    Anti German sentiment in America
    8% of the US population was German-American, and they became the victims of rumor, tar-and-feathering, lynching. German music was unpopular (including the decades and centuries old Wagner and Beethoven), language classes canceled, sauerkraut became 'liberty cabbage' and hamburger 'liberty steak.'
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    Sedition- Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats. Espionage- enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.
  • Eugene V. Debs arrest

    Eugene V. Debs arrest
    The Espionage and Sedition Acts targeted socialists and labor leaders. Eugene V. Debs was handed a ten-year prison sentence for speaking out against the war and the draft.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin established a German republic. The Kaiser gave up the throne. Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points (plan for world peace)

    Wilson's Fourteen Points (plan for world peace)
    1.There should be no secret treaties among nations. 2.Freedom of the seas should be maintained for all. 3. Tariffs and other economic barriers should be lowered or abolished in order to foster free trade. 4.Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility
    of military responses” during diplomatic crises 5. colonial policies should consider interest of it's people. 14th called for an organization to address the spark of war.
  • Agreements made in the treaty of Versailles

    Agreements made in the treaty of Versailles
    In June 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German Republic to the palace of Versailles outside Paris. The Germans were ordered to sign the treaty drawn up by Allies. German reparations would come to over $30 billion dollars. They were forced to assume full responsibility for causing the war.
  • Reparations and the war guilt clause

    Reparations and the war guilt clause
    Required Germany to return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France and to pay reparations, or war damages, amounting to $33 billion to the Allies. a war-guilt clause forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting World War I. German militarism had played a major role in igniting the war. Furthermore, there was no way Germany could pay the huge financial reparations. Germany was stripped of colonial possessions in the Pacific, that could have helped pay its reparations bill.