World War 1

  • Central powers

    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the Central Powers.
  • Allies

    There were two major defense alliances in Europe. The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia. The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
  • 1914 Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia
  • Sinking of liner Arabic

    U-boat sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships.
  • Sinking of British liner Lusitania

    a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans.
  • Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex

    Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer, the Sussex. The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers, including Americans, were killed or injured. Once again the United States warned that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics.
  • Battle of Somme

    lasted until mid-November—the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands
  • Zimmermann note

    a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the United States broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Congress passed the Selective Service Act, By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act.
  • Convoy System

    German U-boat attacks on merchant ships in the Atlantic were a serious threat to the Allied war effort. American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the British to try the convoy system, in which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    The tide had turned against the Central Powers. In September, U.S. soldiers began to mount offensives against the Germans at Saint-Mihiel and in the Meuse-Argonne area.
  • War industries board

    The main regulatory body. The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to ncrease efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing roducts—
    for instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150.
  • Committee on public information

    To popularize the war, the government
    set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public
    Information (CPI). Propaganda is a kind of biased communication designed to
    influence people’s thoughts and actions.
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to he allies

    That same day, German sailors utinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. verywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary ouncils.
  • establishment of the german republic

    socialist leaders in the capital, erlin, established a German rpublic. The kaiser gave up the throne
  • Cease- fire and armistice

    A the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month ruce, that ended the war
  • National war labor board

    Workers who refused to obey board
    decisions could lose their draft
    exemptions. “Work or fight,” the
    board told them. However, the
    board also worked to improve factory
  • Food administration

    help produce and conserve food,
    Wilson set up the Food Administration
    under Herbert Hoover.
    Instead of rationing food, he
    called on people to follow the
    “gospel of the clean plate.” He
    declared one day a week “meatless,”
    another “sweetless,” two
    days “wheatless,” and two other
    days “porkless.”
  • Espionage and sedition

    a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20
    years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane,
    or abusive about the government or the war effort.