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Unit Four

  • Population Trends and MIgration

    European population was at its all time high in 1900
    1/5 of the world was European at this time
    Birth and Death rates leveled off in Europe and grew in other areas (which led to divide between the “developed” and “undeveloped” world
    More than 50 million Europeans Migrated away from their continient between 1846-1932
    Relieved social and population pressures as well as spread European Culture
    Contributed to dominate role Europe plays in the world
  • Women!!!

    The biological role of women as mothers became more entrenched in social views of women
    Misogyny was not uncommon in the fiction and art of this period
    Women were excluded from scientific community (some exceptions)
    Alleged inferiority made them ineligible for participation
    Freud’s views helped perpetuate these ideas
    He was later debunked by psychoanalysts like Melanie Kelin and Karen Horney
  • Textile Industry

    u Textile Industry- Britain achieved economic stability that led to its dominance in the 19th century u Urbanization - Population Continued to Grow and more people chose to live in cities u Migration from countryside to urban areas put new pressure on infrastructure u Poor harvests from 1845-1847 caused massive emigration to cities Transportation Improvements- Railway boom (1830s and 1840s) the improvement of canals and roads made transportation to urban centers cheap and easy
  • The Labor Force

    Workforce was extremely varied; conditions varied from country to country Proletarianization- entered to a wage economy and gradually lost significant ownership in the means in production Factory jobs offered security artisanal trades no longer possessed European Liberals-disapproved and banned labor and trade organizations Confection-production of goods in standard sizes in order to compete with larger establishments (shirts-small; medium; largie
  • London Workingmans assoc.

    Formed by William Lovett and other radical artisans Demanded six specific reforms (Six Points) which were the origins of the movement called Chartism Universal Male Suffrage Annual election of the House of Commons The secret ballot Equal electoral Districts Abolition of Qualifications for members of the House of Commons Payment of salaries to members of the House of Commons
  • Family Structurees and the Industrial Rev

    Prior to Industrial Revolution home life and economic life occurred in the same place; after two distinct spheres begin to emerge Factory wages for skilled male enabled some families rely solely on the male breadwinner Technology- machines became easier to use and fewer people to operate more women and children were employed by factories thus contributed to household income (cheap source of labor) Women- confined to Domestic Sphere (domestic duties such as food preparation, housekeeping
  • English act of 1833

    u Prohibited the employment of children under 9 u Limited the work day for children u Required that children receive two hours of education at factory owners expense u Families were not spending as much time together prior to industrial revolution
  • Problems of Crime & Order

    u Cities became associated with crime as the Industrial Revolution continued u Propertied members of society strove to improve the crime situation u Prison reforms u Professional Police Force
  • Classical econmics

    u Lassiez Faire Economics (Adam Smith Wealth of Nations) u Most Economic Decisions made through the market place u Thrift, Competition, and Personal Industry- all appealed to middle class
  • Classical Economists

    Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Essay on the Principle of Population- argued that population would eventually outstrip food supply (encouraged chastity and discouraged raising families David Ricardo (1772-1823) “the iron law of wages”- wages were raised, more children would be produced, which would cause wages to fall, and working people to produce less children, which would cause wages to rise, in a continuous cycle
  • Early Socailism

    Early Socialists were in favor of the new productive capacity of industrialism
    Utopian Socialists- questioned structures and values of existing capitalist system
    Other Forms of Socialism begin to emerge
    Saint-Simonianism
    Owenism
    Fourierisim
    Anarchism
    Marxism
  • 1848 Year of Revolutions

    Liberal and Nationalist Revolutions (led by Liberals and Nationalists)
    France- “Second Republic” emerged with Napoleon's nephew Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
    Seized power and became Emperor in 1852 and returned France to Dictatorship
    Hapsburgs- Revolts in Hungary and Austria
    Czech Nationalists rebelled and the Pan Slavic Congress- which consisted of the Poles, Ruthenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes and Serbs called for national equality of Slavs and protested of all Slavic people.
  • 1848 Year of Revoultions #2

    Revolts in Italy and Germany were suppressed, the liberal era ended and European middle class seized to be revolutionary
  • The Crimean War

    Grew out of a rivalry between the Ottoman Empire and Russia
    A war ensued with major European Powers- France and Britain declared war on Russia who settled the matter in the Treaty of Paris in 1856
    The Crimean War broke the Concert of Europe and marked a new era in European politics
  • Italian Unification

    Nationalists hoped for Italian unification, but Italians disagreed how to accomplish it
    Romantic republican nationalism was led by Giuseppe Mazzini who found the Young Italy Society, to drive Austria from the peninsula
    Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi led insurrections in the 1830s through 1850s
    Between 1852-1860 Italy was transformed into a nation-state governed by a constitutional monarchy. Full unification never happend
  • German Unification

    The construction of a unified Germany was one of the most important political developments in Europe between 1848-1914 because it altered the international balance of power
    In 1862 William I of Prussia turning to Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) who moved against the liberal Parliament and sought support for unifying Germany through a war with Denmark
    Bismarck supported the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein in their efforts to avoid getting incorporated into Denmark
  • German Unification #2

    Together Russia and Prussia defeated Denmark in 1864
    Elevated Bismarck’s prestige and led to a conflict between two countries in 1865
    The construction of a unified Germany was one of the most important political developments in Europe between 1848-1914 because it altered the international balance of power
    In 1862 William I of Prussia turning to Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) who moved against the liberal Parliament and sought support for unifying Germany through a war with Denmark
    Bismarck supp
  • German Unification #3

    Bismarck supported the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein in their efforts to avoid getting incorporated into Denmark
    Together Russia and Prussia defeated Denmark in 1864
    Elevated Bismarck’s prestige and led to a conflict between two countries in 1865
    Bismarck then provoked war with Austria over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein
    The seven weeks war led to the defeat of Austria in 1866 and established Prussia as the only major power among German states
  • German Unification #4

    In 1867 the north German confederation formed with Bismarck representing the King of Prussia as President
    Germany had become a military monarchy crushing Prussian liberalism
    The Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871) enabled Bismarck to bring southern German states into the confederation.
    Bismarck orchestrated war by provoking France against Prussia
    Southern German states joined Prussia against Napoleon III armies
  • German Unification #5

    The Germans beat French armies and captured Napoleon III
    Besieged Paris and proclaimed it part of the German empire
  • France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

    The provinces and Paris differed on how to handle a settlement with the Prussians
    The National assembly was dominated by monarchists and led by Adolphe Thiers
    The Treaty of Frankfurt that France would pay an indemnity and the Prussians would occupy France until it was paid
    Alsace and part of Lorraine was granted to the Prussians
    Parisians who had suffered under the Prussian siege rebelled against the Treaty of Frankfurt
    Elected a new municipal government on March 28, 1871 called Paris Commune
  • France: From Liberal empire to third republic #2

    that was created to administer Paris separately from the rest of Paris
    On May 8, 1871 the National assembly bombared the city and broke through the defenses on May 21, 1871
    Troops restored order in Paris killing 20,000 Parisians in the process and ending the Commune

    In 1875 the National Assembly adopted a new republican system
    Chamber of deputies that elected by universal male sufferage
    A senate chosen indirectly
    President elected by the two legislative houses
  • France: From Liberal Empire to third republic empire #3

    In 1875 the National Assembly adopted a new republican system
    Chamber of deputies that elected by universal male sufferage
    A senate chosen indirectly
    President elected by the two legislative houses
    1879 President Marshal MacMahon resigns and the republicans gained control of the national government
    The Dreyfus Affair, a case involving the trumped case of a Jewish captain, was the major crisis
  • The Hasburg Empire

    The Habsburg domains remained primarily absolutist after the Revolutions of 1848
    1861 Francis Joseph issued the February Patent which set up a bicameral imperial parliament or Reichsrat an upper chamber appointed the emperor and lower chamber indirectly elected
    The Magyars refused to recognize the system, but the February patent ruled the country for six years
    In 1867 Francis Joseph transformed the Habsburg Empire into Austria Hungary toe satisfy the desires of Magyars to maintain their lands
  • The Hasburgs Empire #2

    separately from Austria while sharing same monarch
    The unrest of the many nationalities in Habsburg Empire caused instability throughout Europe
  • Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

    Alexander II restructured Russian society after Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War, ushering in some of the much needed reforms
    Abolition of serfdom in 1861. Alexander II became known as the Tsar Liberator
    he was never popular with his noble subjects who resented his control over policy
    1870s Young Russians drew on the ideas of Alexander Herzen and formed the Populism movement
    Sought social revolution based on the communal life of the Russian peasants
  • Great Britian Toward Democracy

    Reform Bill sponsored by Benjamin Disraeli, a house of Commons leader in 1867.
    By the time the measure had passed the number of voters had almost doubled
    William Gladstone ushered in many liberal reforms including the opening of more institutions to the public and people from other classes and religious denominations
    The Education Act of 1870 made the government responsible for administering elementary schools.
    Gladstone was also forced to confront the Irish question during his administration
  • Contiental Industries

    Continental Industries caught up with those of Britain toward the end of the 19th century
    Expansion of Railroad systems on the Continent helped spur economic growth and enabled new industries to grow
    The Production of Steel, Chemicals, Electricity, and Oil is known as the Second Industrial Revolution
    Henry Bessemer’s process for manufacturing Steel (20 minutes to make steel=mass production)
    Solway process of alkali production enabled the recovery of more chemical byproducts
  • Contiental Industries #2

    The application of electrical energy to production and to homes and transportation
    Invention of the internal combustion engine- leads to first automobile
  • Middle Class prior to WW1

    The middle class was that its height in the 60 years prior to WWI
    It defined consumer taste and no longer associated with the radical revolutions of the 1840s but desire to protect assets
    The middle class grew more diverse as it came to encompass more people
    Some were magnates, others entrepreneurs and professionals
    Sufficient income for private homes and basic luxuries
  • Late 19th century cities and suburbs

    Europe became more urbanized as migration to cities continued.
    From 1850-1911 urban dwellers grew from 25% to 44% of the population in France
    30%-60% of population in Germany
    Rural migrants frequently lived in bad social conditions and experienced wide spread discrimination

    Cities were redesigned to accommodate changes in urban living.
    Central urban areas had always been places to accommodate people of all social classes urban planners transformed central urban areas into business
  • Late 19th century urbanization #2

    government centers
    Suburbs became popular for both middle and working classes and improved transit eased this transformation
    Sanitation improvements were made after cholera epidemics of 1830s-1840s
    New water and sewer systems were constructed which lowered morality rate
  • Women in late 1900's

    Women remained second class citizens
    Through marriage women lost their individual legal identities and suffered tremendous disadvantages that limited their freedom to work and move from one location to another
    During the Second Industrial Revolution jobs available to women expanded and more married women withdrew from workforce
    Jobs available to women were low paying jobs that required no training or skill
  • Women in late 1900's #2

    New cultural ideas connected prosperity with women not working outside the home took root in the middle class
  • Jews New Beginnings

    Jews saw gains in political equality and social status in the 19th century, but changes came slowly
    The conditions for Jews improved after revolutions of 1848 especially in western Europe
    In France the National Assembly recognized Jews as French citizens in 1789
    Joseph II granted roughly equal laws to Jews and Christians in 1782
    Traditional prejudices continued in Eastern Europe until WWI
    In Russia Jew were treated as foreigners and were restricted in all aspects of their daily lives
  • Jews #2

    Anti-Semitism late 19th century- critics attributed economic stagnation to Jewish bankers and financial institutions
  • Labor, Politics, Socialism of WW1

    After 1848 Workers turned to new institutions and ideologies to seek change
    Trade Unions emerged in the latter part of the 19th century
    Workers attempted to gain improvement in wages and conditions
    Most European Workers did not belong to unions
    Unions did help workers through collective bargaining
    Universal male suffrage was extended in this era in many countries
    Voices of lower-class workers carried more weight
    Socialist movements of many kinds emerged throughout Europe
  • Labor, Politics, Socialism of WW1 #2

    The Organized political party arose at this time
    Karl Marx spoke at the first International Working Men’s Association (1864)
    A group of Radicals, Socialists, Anarchists, and Polish nationalists were organized by a group of British and French trade unionists
    Marxism emerged as a new kind of socialism
    Became popular in Germany
    In Britain Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs took root
    French and German Socialists emerged at this in time in the Socialist Party and German Social Democratic Party
  • Labor, Politics, Socialism of WW1 #3

    In Russia, Vladimir Lenin merged as a prominent Socialists and the Bolsheviks seized power
  • Improvements in Literacy

    By 1900 85% of the people could read in Britain, France, the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia:
    Due improvements in primary education
    Led to greater secondary education opportunities
    The amount of printed matter available to the public increased dramatically during this time
    Literacy enabled Europeans to gain knowledge and improve their social situations
  • Positive Philosphy

    The positivists philosophy of Auguste Comte (1798-1857) influenced the field of science
    Charles Darwin 1859 book the Origins of Species formulated the principle of natural selection
    The Descent of Man- Darwin explored the principle of natural selection in the context of human beings establishing a new theory of evolutionary ethics called social Darwinism
  • Christanity and Church under seige

    Historical scholarship of the 19th century attacked Christianity on many grounds
    David Friedrich Staruass in the Life of Jesus questioned historical evidence of Jesus existence
    Julius Wellhausen, Ernest Renan and William Robertson argued that human authors had written and edited the books of the bible
    The progress of science undermined the Christian underpinning of the doctrine of creation by determining actual age of earth
  • Christianity Under Seige

    Frederick Nietzsche also attacked Christianity accusing it of promoting weakness and not glorifying strength
    Conflict between Church and State
    England- increased hostility between Anglican Church and Protestant dominations
  • Christianity and Cburch under seige #2

    France- Catholic Church is at odd with Third Republic
    Ferry Laws (sponsored by Jules Ferry replaced religious instruction in the public schools and civil training
    Germany- Bismarck removed Catholic and Protestant clergy from overseeing local Education in Prussia
    May laws of 1873 demanded priests be educated in German schools and universities and gave control of appointment of priests to the state
    Kulturkampf “Cultural struggle” failed and Bismarck retreated from his policies
  • 20th century frame mind

    Scientists Ernst Mach, Henri Poincare and Hans Vaihinger urged scientists consider theories hypothetical constructs of the physical world
    Wilhelm Roentgen, Henri Becquerel, J.J Thompson, Marie Curi, and Ernest Rutherford established the important properties and uses of radioactive materials
    Albert Einstein researched relativity
    Werner Heisenberg published his uncertainty principal
  • Literature and Art

    Realism and naturalism became dominant themes
    Flaubert used realism to portray life without adornment in his Madame Bovary
    Zola set forth realism as a movement
    Henrik Isbsen and George Bernard Shaw brought realism into depiction of domestic life and romantic ideals
    From 1870s onward a new movement of modernism was captured by artists trying to break away from traditional forms
    Igor Stravinksy Rite of Spring
    Pablo Picasso accomplished this in Cubist form
  • Art and Literature #2

    Bloomsberry Group such as Virginia Wolfe challenged the structure of traditional literature and assumptions of Victorian culture
    Marcel Proust, James Joyce, Thomas Mann and T.S Eliot literary modernists of this era
  • Pschology

    Sigmund Freud Introduced psychoanalysis to modern period
    Dreams expressed and repressed desires of everyday life
    Carl Jung advanced his own ideas of collective memories and constituting human souls and relied on romanticism in his works
  • Sociology

    German Max Weber- advanced his belief in non-economic factors that might account for major developments in history and his faith in the role of individual in society
    Weber differed from many of his peers, who considered collective behavior more of a factor in society
    These scientists included Emile Durkheim, Georges Sorel, Gustave LeBon, Vilfredo Pareto, and Graham Wallas
    Racial Thinking in this century supported ideas of superior and inferior races in Europe and Beyond.
  • Sociology #2

    An outgrowth of this ideology was anti-Semitism
  • Women #2

    Feminists of this era supported wider sexual freedom for women
    Advocated for contraception
    Women became active in Socialists groups
    Carve out careers for themselves in professions that had previously been unavailable to them