Photo on 2012 04 13 at 12.03

German Unification

  • Period: to

    War of the Sixth Coalition

    A coalition of many European nations came together and defeated France in this war. The germanic states that had been unified by Frances rule created somewhat of a nation out of the many different nations.
  • French invasion of Russia

    French invasion of Russia
    The French Invasion of Russia was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. This weakened the strength of France, and caused Napolion to lose his high reputation. France lost their Allies with Prussia and Austria and led to the War of the Sixth Coalition.
  • Creation of German Confederation

    Creation of German Confederation
    Congress of Vienna created German Confederation. This confederation consisted of 39 nations. The confederation was kept weaker than Austria by Austrian chief minister Metternich.
  • Italian Unification

    Italian Unification
    This turned different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy. The unification made German feel as if they had an Italian Ally against Austria. This led to the Franco-Prussian war in 1871.
  • Prussia's Customs Union created

    Prussia's Customs Union created
    Prussian Customs Union is created. Abolishing internal tariffs in Prussia and allowing her to develop her economy. This helped the nations of germany develop an economy that would allow it to fully unite.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    Carlsbad Decrees are put into place. Laws used by Metternich to restrict press and University freedoms, stopping spread of nationalist ideas. Government restitsthe idea of free press.
  • Zollverein, German Customs Union, created

    Zollverein, German Customs Union, created
    These unions were formed to manage customs and economic policies within their territories. This union made final economic bonds with Prussian and Hohenzollern territories. Austria was excluded from the Zollverein. This eventually allowed prussia to dominate Germany economically.
  • Revolution of 1848

    Revolution of 1848
    Inspired by the revolution in Fance, German liberals and peasants began a revolutionary violence in March 1848. Peasents demand German national unity, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. The princes wer not prepared for revolution, and granted constitutions and parliamentary assemblies in Germany.
  • Failed attempts at unification

    Failed attempts at unification
    Metternich is forced to resign in Austria March – Riots in Berlin. Initially these radical revolutionaries were supported by King of Prussia, Frederick Wilhelm IV. May – Frankfurt Parliament (aka National Assembly) begins – 596 liberals elected from the German Confederation meet to plan a constitution for a unified Germany. Nov – Frederick Wilhelm IV rejected revolutions (became a conservative/ reactionary) and regained control of Berlin.
  • More Failed attempts at unification

    More Failed attempts at unification
    March – Frankfurt Parliament agree on a constitution for Germany (‘Kleindeutschland’, without Austria), led by the King of Prussia. April – Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia rejects the offer of a ‘crown from the gutter’. June – Frankfurt Parliament ends. Erfurt Union – Prussia proposed leading a German Union, excluding Austria.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Take-off

    New factories were built , and the production of textiles and iron went up. railroads grew and started to connect many distant regions. Coal production and export was very high. Prussia become strong and dominated the smaller states of Germany.
  • War Reforms

    War Reforms
    New Prussian Minister of War Von Roon introduces military reforms; longer military service, Army twice as big, etc. This helps increase military power within the confederation. Helps create a sense of nationalism.
  • Prussian budget commission

    Prussian budget commission
    Bismarck demanded a small German nation-state to be dominated by Prussia. Bismarck rejected any type of liberal reform. He left a strong impression on people, but sometimes not such a good one.
  • Unifying Germany

    Unifying Germany
    Jan – Austria and Prussia go to war together against Denmark. April – London Conference fails to establish a peaceful solution. July – Denmark surrenders.
  • Prusso-Danish War

    Prusso-Danish War
    This was the first international crisis Otto Von Bismarck had to face, just three years after taking office. Some say it was first step to German Unification. Prussians and Austrians invaded Denmark, and the Danes were defeated by August.
  • Convention of Gastein

    Convention of Gastein
    Austria gets Holstein (nearer to Prussia), Prussia gets Schleswig. Bismarck knows that this solution will eventually lead to conflict with Austria. Countries gain more land and are now becoming more unified.
  • The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War

    The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War
    In Germany, This war is also known as the unification war. This was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and and the Kingdom of Prussia. This war ended the German Confederation and began the North German Conferderation
  • Prussia gain power

    Prussia gain power
    North German Confederation created by Bismarck, made Prussia the most powerful German state. Southern German states (e.g. Bavaria) still follow Austria’s lead. This helps estalblish the two confederations as nations.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    War between the Second French Empire and Prussia aided by North Germanic Confederation. The Prussian and German victory lead to the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia. The Southern German states influenced to join by rise of nationalism.
  • Official Unification

    Official Unification
    Offcial unification of Germany at the Palace of Versailles. Princes of German states gathered and proclaimed Wilhelm of Prussia as emperor of the German Empire. The unification exposed many religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences between the people. Otto van Bismarkm, the First Chancellor of Wilhelm the I, used RealPolitik, practical politics mainly based on power to achieve Prussia dominance in Germany.
  • Crowning of King Wilhelm I German Emperor

    Crowning of King Wilhelm I German Emperor
    During the Franco-Prussian War, on 18 January 1871 in Versailles Palace, William was crowned German Empire. Bismarck said William was an old-fashioned, courteous, infallibly polite gentleman and a genuine Prussian office. The Empire was named a federal state.
  • First day of Unification

    First day of Unification
    There was a huge amount of Patriotism in Germany at the time. All Germans felt very successful in becoming the most powerful state in Europe. Germany was once just a series of small states a decade ago.