History id


  • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte establishes Second Empire in France

    Louis Napoleon Bonaparte establishes Second Empire in France
  • Crimean War

    Crimean War
    The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau. This was all part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.
  • Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

    Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
    It is a work of scientific literature which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.
  • Edouard Manet: Le Dejeuner sur L'herbe (The Lunceon on the Grass)

    Edouard Manet: Le Dejeuner sur L'herbe (The Lunceon on the Grass)
    It is a large oil on canvas painting. Its juxtaposition of a female nude with fully dressed men sparked controversy when the work was first exhibited at the Salon des Refuses.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    It was a war fought between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the german states. The major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony.
  • the Peace of Prague

    It was a peace treaty signed which ended the Austro-Prussian war. The treaty was lenient toward the Austrian Empire due to the fact that Otto von Bismarck had persuaded William I that maintaining Austria's place in Europe would be better in the future for Prussia than harsh terms.
  • Karl Marx: Das Kapital, vol. 1

    Karl Marx: Das Kapital, vol. 1
    It is an extensive treatise on political economy written in Germany by Karl Marx and edited in part by Friedrich Engels. The book is a critical analysis of capitalism.
  • Josh Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women

    this essay was an affront to European conventional norms of views on the status of men and women. "The Subjection of Women" (1869) offers both detailed argumentation and passionate eloquence in opposition to the social and legal inequalities commonly imposed upon women by a patriarchal culture. Just as in "On Liberty", Mill defends the emancipation of women on utilitarian grounds.
  • Fall of Second Empire

    Fall of Second Empire
    The capture of the French emperor left the Prussians without an opposing government willing to make a quick peace. Indeed, two days after news hit Paris of Emperor Napoleon's III capture, the French Second Empire collapsed in a bloodless revolution, leading to the creation of a new provisional government which would carry on the war for five more months, sparing no effort to try to change France's fortunes.
    But the defeat at Sedan and the capture of Napoleon III sealed the doom of France.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia. It also marked the downfall of Napoleon III and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the French Third Republic. As part of the settlement, the
  • Napoleon III defeated

    Napoleon III defeated
    The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War on 1 September 1870. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and his army and practically decided the war in favor of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government.
  • Unification of Italy

    Unification of Italy
    Despite a lack of consensus on the exact dates for the beginning and end of this period, many scholars agree that the process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and the end of Napoleonic rule, and ended sometime around 1871 with the Franco-Prussian War.
  • Congress of Berlin

    Congress of Berlin
    as a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans. Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to balance the distinct interests of the United Kingdom, Russia and Austria-Hungary. As a consequence, however, differences between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans.
  • Claude Monet moves to Giverny

    Claude Monet moves to Giverny
    Monet and his large family rented a house and 2 acres from a local landowner. The house was situated near the main road between the towns of Vernon and Gasny at Giverny.
  • Beyond Good and Evil - Friedrich Nietzsche

    Beyond Good and Evil - Friedrich Nietzsche
    In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of lacking critical sense and blindly accepting Christian premises in their consideration of morality. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual.
  • The Dreyfus Affair

    The Dreyfus Affair
    The Dreyfus affair (French: affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided France in the 1890s and the early 1900s. It involved the conviction for treason in November 1894 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was sent to the penal colony at Devil's Island in French Guiana and placed in solitary confinement.
  • Balzac - Auguste Rodin

    Balzac - Auguste Rodin
    The Société des Gens des Lettres, a Parisian organization of writers, planned a monument to French novelist Honoré de Balzac immediately after his death in 1850. The society commissioned Rodin to create the memorial in 1891, and Rodin spent years developing the concept for his sculpture. When Balzac was exhibited in 1898, the negative reaction was not surprising.[26] The Société rejected the work, and the press ran parodies.
  • The Interpretation of Dreams - Sigmund Freud

    The Interpretation of Dreams - Sigmund Freud
    The book introduces Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation. Dreams, in Freud's view, were all forms of "wish-fulfillment" — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort, whether something recent or something from the recesses of the past (later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud would discuss dreams which did not appear to be wish-fulfillment).
  • V.I. Lenin: What is to be Done?

    V.I. Lenin: What is to be Done?
    In What Is to Be Done?, Lenin argues that the working class will not spontaneously become political simply by fighting economic battles with employers over wages, working hours and the like. To convert the working class to Marxism, Lenin argues that Marxists should form a political party, or "vanguard", of dedicated revolutionaries to spread Marxist political ideas among the workers.
  • Marie Sklodowska Curie, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becqueral receive Nobel prize for work on radioactivity

    Marie Sklodowska Curie, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becqueral receive Nobel prize for work on radioactivity
    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903 was divided, one half awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity",the other half jointly to Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".
  • Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

    Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
    It is considered a founding text in economic sociology and sociology. Weber wrote that the Protestant work ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism
  • Giacomo Puccini, Madama Butterfly

    Giacomo Puccini, Madama Butterfly
    Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. Puccini based his opera in part on the short story "Madame Butterfly" (1898) by John Luther Long, which was dramatized by David Belasco. Puccini also based it on the novel Madame Chrysanthème (1887) by Pierre Loti. According to one scholar, the opera was based on events that actually occurred in Nagasaki in the early 1890s.
  • Revolution in Russia

    Revolution in Russia
    The 1905 Russian Revolution was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included terrorism, worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy, the State Duma of the Russian Empire, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
  • Albert Einstein: Theory of Relativity

    Albert Einstein: Theory of Relativity
    The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.[1] However, the word "relativity" is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance.
    The term "theory of relativity" was based on the expression "relative theory" (German: Relativtheorie) used by Max Planck in 1906, who emphasized how the theory uses the principle of relativity.