Chapter 25

  • Unions Outlawed in France

    This was done in the name of "liberty". It is significant because it demonstrates that workers unions were widely illegal.
  • Italy is Reorganized

    At the Congress of Vienna, the Italian states were reorganized. Austria took control of Lombardy and Vienna, Sardinia and Piedmont remained under the control of an Italian monarch, the papacy maintained control of central Rome and Naples and Sicily continued to be ruled by the Bourbons. In addition, Tuscany shared Northern Italy with many smaller states. The division is significant because it would eventually lead to the desire to unify Italy.
  • Unions Granted the Right to Exist in England

    This is significant because it demonstrates that unions were becoming more politically acceptable.
  • Zollverein

    Zollverein was a German customs union designed to stimulate trade and increase the finances of member states. This allowed German businesses to enrich themselves and for industry to grow. The union succeeded in uniting Germany economically. Prussia’s lead role in the organization also gave it a political advantage against Austria’s supremacy in German affairs.
  • Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, published by Karl Marx, argued that the working classes such rise up against their governments and create a communist utopia. This would inspire generations of socialists throughout Europe.
  • Election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte in France

    He managed to win the majority of votes cast in the election because of his name, the want of the middle class for a strong ruler and the fact that the lower classes agreed with the programs Louis Bonaparte set out in his works Napoleonic Ideas and The Elimenation of Poverty.
  • Hungarian Patriots Declare Independence

    This demonstrates that nationalism was weakening Austria.
  • King Cotton

    By this year, the American South was exporting 5 million bales of cotton a year to textile mills in New England and Europe. This stregthened the South's agrarian economy and increased the need for slaves.
  • The National Assembly is Dismissed

    The Conservative National Assembly refused to allow Bonaparte to serve for more than a single term. In retaliation, he conspired with key army officers and removed the National Assembly from power in a coup. He later legitimized his actions by holding an election in France. He was elected to be president for ten years and then a hereditary emperor.
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    Crimean War

    The war was fought between France and Russia over who would have the right to protect Christian shrines in the Ottoman Empire. Russia was badly defeated. This is significant because it demonstrates that Russia was economically backwards.
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    Reign of Alexander II of Russia

    Tsar Alexander II was a reforming leader who abolished serfdom, attempted to reform the Russian government and the Russian economy. He was assasinated in 1881.
  • Austria Goes to War with Sardinia

    Cavour successfully goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia. Napoleon III, who had allied with Sardinia, quickly came to the nation’s defense. Sardinian and French forces quickly gained the upper-hand during the conflict, but Napoleon III did not want a powerful state to his South. As a result, he made a compromise peace with Austria in July of 1859 and Sardinia only received Lombardy from Austria. Italy remained essentially unchanged from the conflict.
  • The Middle Class Takes Over the German Parliament

    The middle class was greatly overrepresented in parliament. They demanded that parliament, not the king, be the supreme ruler of the land and that the military would respond to Parliament. These demands proved to be popular with the German people. This is significant because it would cause the German parliament to clash with William I of Prussia.
  • On Liberty

    In the book, JohnStuart Mill argued that there was inherent value in protecting individual differences and unpopular opinions. This is significant because it demonstrates the impact of republicanism.
  • Workers are Granted Rights in France

    During this decade, Napoleon III regulated pawnshops and supported credit unions and workshops for the working class. He also granted workers the right to form unions and to strike. This secured working class support for Napoleon III.
  • Northern Italy Joins Sardinia

    Northern Italy overwhelmingly voted to join Sardinia. This is significant because it demonstrates that Italy was becoming a unified nation.
  • Garibaldi Liberates the Two Sicilies

    Garibaldi led an army of a thousand Red Shirts and won repeated victories against the 20,000 man royal army, gained volunteers and eventually won control of the kingdom. When he was preparing to invade Rome, Cavour occupied the Papal States to prevent Garibaldi from starting a war with France. The two eventually agreed to unite their respective territories and the kingdom of Italy was united under Sardinian rule.
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    Reign of William I of Prussia

    William I doubled the size of his highly disciplined army because he feared war with Austria and France. This resulted in a higher dense budget and higher tax rates.
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    American Civil War

    The war, the bloodiest conflict in American history, was won by the Union due to class divides ruining patriotism in the South, a stronger economic system and the existance of greater numbers of railroads. Many powerful business corporations emerged during this time.
  • Serfdom is Abolished in Russia

    Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom and the emancipated peasants recieved half of the land. However, collective ownership of the land made improving agricultural texhniques impossible.
  • Bismarck Comes to Power

    Bismarck is appointed to the head of a new ministry by William I to defy parliament. This is significant because Bismarck would go on to gain great power and unify Germany.
  • Homestead Act

    The act opened western land to settlers. It is significant because it expanded American influence to the West.
  • Denmark Tries to Claim Schleswig-Holstein

    The Danish king attempted to bring the provinces into a more centralized Danish state. As a result, Prussia and Austria temporarily joined forces to successfully defeat Denmark. The war is significant because it set the stage for the Austro-Prussian War because it left Prussia in a position to force Austria out of a future war.
  • The Russian Zemstvo

    The zemstvo was a local assembly elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages and noble landlords. Russian liberals hoped that the system would lead to democratic reform. However, it was quickly taken control of by the Russian bureaucracy and the local nobility.
  • The First International Working Man's Association

    The first association organized annual meetings to spread the socialist doctrine of inevitable revolution. Marx;s support for the Paris Commune scared off many moderate British socialists, effectively ending the first association.
  • Syllabus of Errors

    Pope Pius IX attacked rationalism, socialism, the separation of church and state and religious liberty in this work. This is significant because ti demonstrates that the pope refused to align himself with liberalism.
  • 13th Amendment

    The amendment ended slavery. This is significant because reinforced the concept of free labor in a market economy.
  • Jules Ferry Establishes Compulsory Education in France

    This is significant because it helped promote secular and republican values in France. Catholic schools lost state financing, so students were exposed to more secular teachers.
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    Austro-Prussian War

    During the war, Prussia utilized railroads to transport soldiers and breech loading needle guns to maximize firepower. Prussia overran Northern Germany and won the war. Austria was offered generous peace terms. They paid no reparations and lost no land to Prussia. However, the German Confederation was dissolved and Austria agreed to withdraw from German affairs. The northern states formed the Northern German Confederation and the Catholic Southern states entered an alliance with Prussia.
  • Hermann Baumgarten Suppports Bismarck

    He argued that the defeat of liberal principles had strengthened Germany. This demonstrates that The German middle class was obeying Bismarck and that monarchial authority had won out.
  • Constitution of 1848 is Restored

    This gave the Magyar nobility the power to dominate both Magyar peasants and minority groups. Only 25% of the people could vote and alws were passed allowing only the language of the Magyars in schools. Magyar patriots also demanded political independence from Austria. This demonstrates that nationalism was destroying Austria-Hungary
  • Opposition Forces Gain Power in France

    During this year, 45 percent of the members elected to the Assembly were republicans, monarchists and liberals. This occurred in the wake of liberal reform implemented by Napoleon to respond to demands of middle class liberals for a more representative government. It is significant because it marked the decline of Napoleon III’s stronghold on power.
  • Passage of a New French Constitution

    During this year, Napoleon III granted France a new constitution that combined a parliamentary regime with a hereditary emperor. Over seven million voters supported it while 1.5 million voted against it. The new constitution is significant because it demonstrates that France was heading in a democratic direction.
  • Unions Win the Right to Strike in England

    They would not be held liable for the loss of their employer's income. This is significant because it demonstrates that unions were becoming increasingly powerful and accepted.
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    Franco-Prussian War

    The war started after Bismarck goaded France into attacking. He knew that a successful war with France would cause Southern Germany to join the Northern states. Other national governments did not aid France due to Bismarck’s generosity to Austria following the Austro-Prussian War.
  • Battle of Sedan

    The Prussian army decisively defeated the French at this battle. However, total French resistance was no eliminated.
  • The Fourth French Republic

    French patriots in Paris declared another republic and vowed to continue fighting Germany.
  • Paris Surrenders

    Paris surrendered to the German army after holding out for five months and was forced to accept Germany’s harsh surrender terms. France had to pay 5 billion Francs worth of reparations and was forced to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. The harsh peace terms caused massive anti-German resentment in France.
  • Global Depression Hits

    Grain prices were driven down due to the depression and increasing exports from Russia and the United States. As a result, The peasants, Catholic League and Junker landowners all supported establishing tarrifs to protect their respecive interests.
  • Bismarck Abandons Kulturkampf

    The doctrine was essentially an attack on the Catholic Church and saw only limited support in Protestant Prussia. The event is significant because it demonstrates that man yGermans would not support the state over the church.
  • William I Survives Two Assasination Attempts

    As a result, Bismarc used the national outcry to pass a bill through the Reichstag that outlawed the Social Democrats. This resulted in the Social Democrats being driven underground.
  • Marshall MacMahon is Forced to Resign by the National Assembly

    This helped to ensure that France would retain its republican form of government.
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    Reign of Alexander III of Russia

    Alexander III was much more conservative tha Alexander IIHis minister of finance, Sergei Witte, helped to expand the Russian economy. He established high protective tarrifs, ddoubled the number of railroads in Russia and invited foreign investement in Russia. By 1900, Russia was producing the fourth highest amount of steel of all nations.
  • Modern Social Security Laws in Germany

    The laws, created by Bismarck, gave benefits to retired or injured workers. The law, as well as additional social benefit laws, did not deter voters from voting socialist. However, it did give them a greater stake in their government.
  • Third Reform Bill

    The bill gave the right to vote to all adult males in Great Britian. This is significant because it resulted in Britain becoming increasingly democratic.
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    Reign of William II of Germany

    William II is significant because he forced Bismarck to resign from his position. His interference in Germany's foreign affairs also weakened the nation diplomatically.
  • Second Working Men's Association

    The second association was a federation of national socialist parties that meet every three years. May 1 was organized as a global day of strikes and a permanent executive was established. The Second International lasted until the start of World War I.
  • Karl Lueger Scores Political Victories in Vienna

    His anti-semitic policies encourage Theoder Herzl to support Zionism, or support for a Jewish homeland. This is significant because it would eventually result in the creation of Israel. Leuger's policies would also serve as a source of inspiration for Hitler.
  • Anti-Socialist Legislation is Repelled in Germany

    This is significant because it allowed the German Social Democrats to operate legally. It also stregthened the position of unions because authorities could not harrass them as socialist fronts.
  • Homerule Bill for Ireland

    The Bill would have given Ireland home-rule and it gained the support of most of Parliament after Irish representatices promised to pass the People's Budget in return for homerule. Ulserites, Protestants in Northern Ireland, refused to be ruled by the Osuthern Irish Catholics and raised an army of 100,000 by 1913. A compromise bill that would have allowed Northern Ireland to remain in Britain was abandoned due to World War I.
  • Dreyfus Affair

    A Jewsih Captain named Alfred Dreyfus was framed for treason by the French Army. His family, never doubting Dreyfus's innocence, appealed. The case divided France between the military, anti-semites and Catholics and civil libertarians and republicans. Dreyfus was eventually acquited of all charges and reinstated into the military.
  • Evolutionary Socialism

    The book, written by Edward Bernstein, argued that Marx's views of ever-greater poverty for workers was wrong and that socialists should work with other progressive fronts to achieve gradual change through legislation and economic development. This view was denounced by the Second International and many socialists. It is significant because it described the view of revisionism.
  • Japan Attacks Russia

    Japan scored multiple victories against Russia and Russia was forced in September 1905 to accept a humiliating defeat. This is significant because it led to political upheaval in Russia.
  • Bloody Sunday

    On this day, soldiers stationed at the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg fired on peaceful protestors. This event is significant because it resulted in political upheaval in Russia.
  • France Cuts Ties with the Catholic Church.

    The government refused to pay the salary of priests and control of Catholic churches was handed over to Catholic committes. This is significant because it promoted secular, patriotic nationalism.
  • Norway Becomes Independent

    This demonstrates the increasing power of nationalism.
  • October Manifesto

    In response to widespread strikes, the tsar granted full civil liberties and a popularily elected Duma. The event is significant because it split the opposition. Many middle-class leaders were frightened and helped the government supress the rebellion.
  • The People's Budget

    The bill was designed to increase spending on social welfare measures. It is significant because the conservative House of Lords attempted to reassert its authority by blocking the measure. This effort was abandoned after the king threatened to create more seats in the House of Lords to get the measure passed.
  • Fundamental Laws

    The laws gave the tsar near absolute power and a veto over legislation passed in the Duma. Opposition to the laws reulted in the tsar dismissing the Duma and rewriting the constitution to give the propertied classes disproportional representation. As a result, the government secured support in the Duma in 1907 and 1912.
  • Social Democrats Become the Largest Party in the Reichstag

    This is significant because it demonstrates that socialism was becoming increasingly powerful in Germany.
  • Collective Bargaining in Germany

    This allowed unions to negotiate for the rights of their workers. In 1913, over ten thousand collective bargaining agreements were signed. This is significant because it resulted in German socialists seeking gradual change instead of revolution.
  • Women Can Vote in Norway

    At this time, women's suffrage was limited to Norway and several American states. They would not gain widespread suffrage until after World War I.