unit 10

  • Thurgood marshall

    Chief counsel for the NAACP who worked to rid America of the “separate but equal” doctrine that the Supreme Court had upheld in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling
  • Jim crow laws

    A term for racist laws and social orders in the South that kept blacks separate from and subordinate to whites

    An organization founded by W. E. B. Du Bois and several white northerners that sought to achieve legal victories for blacks, especially the reversal of the “separate but equal” doctrine established by the Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision
  • Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson

    The Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896 was a major setback for early civil rights activists. The decision declared that segregated public and private facilities for blacks and whites were “separate but equal,” effectively justifying Jim Crow segregation laws
  • Period: to

    civil rights

  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 – December 14, 1994)[1] was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African-American students from attending Little Rock Central High School. Despite his initial staunch segregationist stances,
  • MLKJ

    Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. King has become a national icon in the history of American progressivism.[1]A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership
  • Rosa parks

    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".[1]On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had tak
  • Barbara Jordan

    was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. On her death she became the first African-American woman to be buried in the Texas State Cemetery.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez (born César Estrada Chávez, locally: [ˈsesaɾ esˈtɾaða ˈtʃaβes]; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW).[1]A Mexican American, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members. His publi
  • CORE

    An organization founded in 1942 to campaign against segregation in the North using sit-ins and other nonviolent forms of protest
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Clara Fernandez Huerta (born April 10, 1930) is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', immigrants', and womens' rights, including the Eugene V. Debs Foundation Outstanding American Award, the United States Presidential Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights[1] and the P
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

    A Supreme Court ruling that desegregated public schools. The NAACP’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, won a major victory for black Americans when he convinced the Supreme Court to hear Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in 1954.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Maria Sotomayor (/ˈsoʊnjə ˌsoʊtoʊmaɪˈjɔr/, Spanish: [ˈsonja sotomaˈʝor];[3] born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.Sotomayor was born in The Bronx, New York City and is of Puerto Rican descent. Her father died when she was nine, and she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Prin
  • martin luther king JR

    A civil rights leader during the 1950s and 1960s who fought to protect the rights of blacks in the South
  • montgomery bus boycott

    A yearlong boycott beginning in 1955 in which blacks avoided city transportation in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest the arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man
  • Rosa Parks

    A college-educated seamstress who effectively launched the first peaceful protest of the civil rights movement. The peaceful protest began when Parks boarded a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus on December 1, 1955, and refused to give up her seat to a white man who was looking for a seat because the white section was full. Police arrested her for defying the city’s law, prompting outraged blacks to start the Montgomery bus boycott later that year.
  • SCLC

    A coalition founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King Jr. and nearly one hundred other southern ministers to rally church support for the blossoming civil rights movement
  • SNCC

    A civil rights organization founded in 1960, after the highly successful Greensboro sit-in, whose goal was to organize students on campuses across the country
  • Landon B Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States (1961–1963). He is one of only four people[1] who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President.[2] Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937–1949 and as
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (/ˈɛlɨnɔr ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. President Harry S. Truman later nicknamed her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.[1]Born into a wealthy and well-connected New York family, the Roosevelts, Eleanor had an unhappy childhood, suffering the deaths of both p
  • Betty Friedan

    The Feminine Mystique is a nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
  • 24th Amendment

    An amendment to the U.S. Constitution that outlawed the payment of poll taxes as a prerequisite for voting in federal elections. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified in 1964.
  • Civil rights act

    A1965 act that outlawed literacy tests as a voting prerequisite and sent federal election officials into the South to help blacks register to vote
  • George Wallace

    George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. After four runs for U.S. president (three as a Democrat and one on the American Independent Party ticket), he earned the title "the most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter[1] and Stephan Lesher.[2]A 1972 assassinati
  • Black panthers

    An organization of militant black civil rights activists inspired by Stokely Carmichael’s “black power” philosophies. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense formed in Oakland, California, in 1966.
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector Perez Garcia (January 17, 1914-July 26, 1996) was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.[1] As a result of the national prominence he earned through his work on behalf of Hispanic Americans, he was instrumental in the appointment of Mexican American and American G.I. Forum charter member Vicente T. Ximenes to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1966,[2] was named alternate ambassador to the Uni
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.Before becoming a judge, Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. He served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit after being
  • Orval faubus

    Arkansas governor who defied federal court order to integrate public high schools; ordered Arkansas National Guard to prevent black students from entering Central High School in Little Rock