Civil Rights Timeline

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    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

    Helping start the civil rights movement, Brown v. Board of Education was a decision by the U.S Supreme court ruling that racial segregation in schools are unconstitutional. This helped American public schools integrate in separate but equal.
  • White Citizens Council

    White Citizens Council
    White supremacist organizations join opposing racial integration. More than 60,000 members across the country joined. They threatened jobs causing people to be fired and boycotted businesses so activists wouldn't be able to get loans.
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    Brown v. Board of Education II

    Made clear that schools in America would have to de-segregate. This was done by making sure schools were supervised by local authorities and if schools didn't integrate, they were punished.
  • Lynching of Emmett Till

    Lynching of Emmett Till
    A 14-year-old boy was visiting his family in Mississippi when he was unexpectedly murdered for flirting with a white woman. His corpse was found in the Tallahatchie River where they could barley identify him due to how bad the beating was. This created more tension between the black and white communities.
  • Rosa Parks Arrested

    Rosa Parks Arrested
    On December 1st of 1955, an activist named Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man. She was arrested for breaking the law which caused more tension in the black community eventually leading to the Montgomery boycott. Edgar Nixon, president of the NAACP, bailed Rosa out of jail 24 hours after she had been arrested.
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    Montgomery Bus Boycott

    A campaign against the movement of racial segregation on a public transit system in Montgomery Alabama. This lead to the supreme court to decide that segregation on buses are unconstitutional. This was more of a peaceful protest than a violent one.
  • M.L.K House Bombing

    M.L.K House Bombing
    A white supremacist terrorist bombed the home of Dr. Martin Luther King. Although there were no injuries, this event caused major tension in the community.
  • Bombing of Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth

    Bombing of Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
    On December 25th, 1956, members of the KKK bombed the home of a black activist known as Fred Shuttlesworth. The bomb destroyed the home and damaged the church next to the home. This attempted murder was done out of anger by white supremacists for his active role in civil rights movements.
  • SCLC Founded

    SCLC Founded
    Standing for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, this civil rights organization paved the way to successfully create a voice in the black community. The first president of the SCLC was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Eisenhower sends in federal troops

    Eisenhower sends in federal troops
    President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock to public high schools to protect students and enforce integration. Nine students that attended school were in danger of white students due to tension of the civil rights movement.
  • Greensboro Sit-ins

    Greensboro Sit-ins
    African American students contributed to a sit-in at a lunch counter in North Carolina. The sit-in was successful for integrating lunch counters by the act of four young African American men.
  • SNCC Founded

    SNCC Founded
    Standing for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, this civil rights organization was founded to give younger African Americans an opportunity to voice their opinions. Members of this group played roles in the sit-ins, freedom rides and the March on Washington.
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    Freedom Rides

    White and black civil rights activists protested segregation on buses by taking trips through American south. Their goal was to end racial segregation while facing obstacles such was the KKK and authorities.
  • White mob attacks federal marshals in Montgomery

    White mob attacks federal marshals in Montgomery
    A white mobbed attacked freedom riders with bats and clubs while a bomb was thrown into the bus and golfed into flames. This caused outrage in the black community. Three civil rights activists were killed.
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    Albany Georgia “failure”

    The movement was started on November 17th, 1961, and called off as a failure due to their unsuccessful tactics in desegregating public places in Southwest Georgia.
  • Bailey v. Patterson

    Bailey v. Patterson
    The Supreme Court had decided that it was unconstitutional for transportation companies like buses and trains to be racially segregated.
  • Kennedy sends in Federal Troops

    Kennedy sends in Federal Troops
    The governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, denied an African American man from enrolling at the university. John F. Kennedy sends troops to force desegregation.
  • M.L.K goes to a Birmingham jail

    M.L.K goes to a Birmingham jail
    Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and sent to Birmingham jail for protesting the discrimination of African American. Birmingham was a difficult place for African Americans to live in due to very segregated public spaces.
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal Pay Act
    This act stated that both men and woman should be paid equal if working for the same company. It was signed by John F. Kennedy for men and woman having different pay salary.
  • Assassination of Medgar Evers

    Assassination of Medgar Evers
    Medgar Evers was a civil rights activist based in Mississippi. He worked for the NAACP. He helped organize voting rights and boycotts. He was assassinated by a white supremacist.
  • March on Washington "I have a dream"

    March on Washington "I have a dream"
    Many civil rights activists and leaders gathered in Washington D.C At the march, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered life-changing speech that changed the way racial segregation and black rights were viewed. Over 200,000 people attended and made the march on Washington successful in the eyes of president Kennedy.
  • Bombing of Church in Birmingham

    Bombing of Church in Birmingham
    A bomb exploded before Sunday morning services. The bombed killed four young girls and injured many others. The black community outraged again for the lives that were lost, especially since they were children.
  • Assassination of John F. Kennedy

    Assassination of John F. Kennedy
    One of the most sensational political assassinations of the century, John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 11th, 1963. Many people were frightened but also devastated by what happened. This further outraged Kennedy supporters.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    The United States ratified the 24th Amendment which essentially prohibited a poll tax for voting in presidential elections.
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    Volunteer campaign essentially trying to get as many African American voters as possible. The campaign was not overall successful because it didn't impact the voter registration but made a bigger voice on the topic.
  • Killing of Goodman, Chaney, Schwerner

    Killing of Goodman, Chaney, Schwerner
    Known as the freedom summer murders, three civil rights activists were taken hostage and murdered. This sparked national outrage and is remembered to give respect to the three men that were killed.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Outlaws discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin. This ended segregation in public spaces and discrimination for black people searching for jobs.
  • Assassination of Malcolm X

    Assassination of Malcolm X
    On February 21st, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated in Harlem. He was killed by rival black muslims.
  • Selma to Montgomery March

     Selma to Montgomery March
    600 civil rights activists head east out of Selma to Edmund Pettus Bridge where authorities attacked them. Four people died just for voting rights.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

     Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Legislation prohibited racial discrimination and segregation in voting. It banned poll taxes, literacy tests and other useless things that were seen as racist.
  • Black Panthers Formed

    Black Panthers Formed
    In Oakland California, the Black Panthers was founded by Bobby Seale. This civil rights organization was known for standing up to authorities when need be.
  • Loving v. Virginia

    Loving v. Virginia
    In 1967, a court case was enacted prohibiting the law of banning interracial marriage.
  • Minneapolis Riots

    Minneapolis Riots
    Younger African Americans were angered by the power of the government and set fire to storefronts. Many of the businesses they destroyed were owned by jews but they did not seem to care due to racial tensions between the community and the system.
  • Detroit Riots

    Known to be a very bloody event, this was a battle fought between black people and the police department. Anger had been created by the unemployment rate of African Americans.
  • Assassination of M.L.K

    After M.L.K was assassinate by a white supremacist, many people were outraged which started riots. The trenton riots were an outcome of the assassination.
  • Assassination of Robert “Bobby” Kennedy

     Assassination of Robert “Bobby” Kennedy
    RFK, an american politician, was assassinated by a man named Sirhan. This occurred in Los Angeles California.