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Civil Rights Timeline

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    Brown v Board of Education

    -Brown v. Board of Education was one of the cornerstones of the civil rights movement.
    -It stressed that “separate-but-equal” education and other services were not, in fact, equal at all.
    -Even though schools were not desegregated the ruling fueled the civil rights movement in the United States.
  • White Citizens Council

    White Citizens Council
    -The White Citizens Council was founded in 1954 and was similar to many white supremacist groups.
    -The group had high racial tensions and were pro segregation.
    -They were very involved in many court cases that related to segregation and were a huge counter group to the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Brown v Board of Education II

    Brown v Board of Education II
    -Brown v Board of Education ll followed up the case of Brown v Board of Education l.
    -In the first case schools were ordered to integrate black and white students.
    -However many schools in the south did not come through and decided to stay racially segregated.
    -Brown v Board of Education II expressed the fact that all schools must desegregate and do it at a deliberate speed.
  • Lynching of Emmett Till

    Lynching of Emmett Till
    -Emmett Till who was a 14 year old boy was brutally beaten and murdered for "flirting" with a white female.
    -Emmet Till's clothes were ripped off and he was beaten nearly to death, then he got shot, and finally was thrown into the river.
    -The Emmett Till murder trial showed the brutality of Jim Crow segregation in the South.
    The murder of Emmet Till just like the Rosa Parks arrest was an early event that sparked the Civil Rights movement.
  • Rosa Parks Arrested

    Rosa Parks Arrested
    • Rosa Parks was arrested because she refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama. -The non violent act sparked the bus boycott as many African Americans refused to use the buses in order for the bus businesses to cave in for their rights. -The event was very significant as it was the first time an African American made headlines for refusing to do something for a white. -The arrest against Rosa Parks sparked the Civil Rights movement.
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    Montgomery bus boycott

    -The Montgomery bus boycott was a boycott that lasted over a year and was fighting against segregated seating on buses.
    -When Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white it hit the whole African community so they boycotted the buses to try and put them out of business or gain desegregated seating.
    -The boycott is regarded as the first large-scale U.S. demonstration against segregation.
  • Martin Luther King House Bombing

    Martin Luther King House Bombing
    -Martin Luther King Jr.’s house was bombed by segregationists because of the success that Montgomery Bus Boycott brought.
    -None of MLK's family members were hurt from the bombing.
    -After the bombing 300-500 African Americans came to his house with weapons and were ready to retaliate.
    -MLK calmed the crowd down and stressed his non violent ways.
  • Bombing of Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth

    Bombing of Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
    -Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth survived two bombings before 1963.
    -He was a civil rights movement leader and was a founding father with MLK.
    -In 1957 he survived a bombing which included 6 sticks of dynamite in his own room.
  • SCLC Founded

    SCLC Founded
    -The Southern Christian Leadership Congress or more commonly known as the SCLC was a civil rights movement group.
    -The groups leader was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and they are most known for their 381 day Montgomery bus boycott.
    -The group stressed non violence as their forms of actions were through boycott's and marches.
  • Eisenhower sends in Federal Troops

    Eisenhower sends in Federal Troops
    -President Eisenhower sent armed troops into Little Rock due to the problems with school integration.
    -The troops were there to stop African Americans from entering the school as they were used as a blockade.
    -The act by the president created an outburst as he lost many African American support.
  • SNCC Formed

    SNCC Formed
    -The SNCC or Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was a civil-rights group that wanted to give younger blacks a bigger voice during the civil rights movement.
    -The SNCC had very radical beliefs and were on the far left of the spectrum.
    -They wanted change to happen extremely quickly.
    -The SNCC began to look beyond integration and more towards broader social change.
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    Greensboro sit ins

    -The Greensboro was a movement towards African Americans not being treated fairly in restaurants.
    -The movement started when a group of African Americans arrived at a segregated restaurant and wouldn't leave until they were served.
    -This movement cause an outbreak and forced restaurants to change their segregation laws.
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    Freedom Rides

    -The Freedom Rides were bus trips through the South which protested the segregation of buses.
    -The Freedom Riders consisted of whites and African Americans which made it a more powerful group.
    -The group faced lots of violence and buses even got burned to the ground because of their protests for desegregates buses.
  • White mob attacks federal marshals in Montgomery

    White mob attacks federal marshals in Montgomery
    -A large mob of segregationists attack freedom riders and federal marshals in Montgomery, Alabama.
    -The mob showed no mercy as they used bats and metal pipes to attack the federal marshals and riders.
    -The freedom riders did not back down as they took the beating because they believed in desegregation.
    -The marshals had to fend off the mob for the freedom riders, but the mob was too much to handle.
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    Albany Georgia “failure”

    -The Albany Movement challenged all forms of racial segregation and discrimination in the city.
    -The movement included many different civil rights groups.
    -The Albany movement resulted as a huge failure as MLK was forced out and all of the facilities remained segregated.
  • Bailey v Patterson

    Bailey v Patterson
    -The Bailey v Patterson case stressed the outbreak of what happened with Rosa Parks.
    -The case expressed that no state may require racial segregation of interstate or intrastate transportation facilities.
    -This meant that buses and planes or other ways of transportation needed to be equal for all.
    -This was significant because it showed that the African American community wasn't going to back down from what has been going on through transportation.
  • MLK goes to a Birmingham jail

    MLK goes to a Birmingham jail
    -MLK was sent to jail due to his protests towards the unfair treatment against African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama.
    -Court later ordered the he could not protest in Birmingham.
    -However stores, schools, and jobs would soon become desegregated in Birmingham due to the outburst of MLK's arrest.
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal Pay Act
    -The Equal Pay Act is law that prohibits gender influenced wages in the United States. (Gender discrimination)
    -The law assures equal pay for both men and women in the work place.
    -The act was signed by JFK and was labeled as an amendment towards the Fair Labor Standards Act.
    -The act revolutionized the labor force as women now had every right in the workplace as men.
  • Kennedy sends in Federal Troops

    Kennedy sends in Federal Troops
    -President Kennedy sends federal troops to Alabama in order to get through the governor of Alabama George Wallace and allow two black students into the University of Alabama.
    -The act showed Kennedy's desire for desegregation.
    -Alabama did not like what Kennedy had done and Kennedy lost Alabama supporters as many started supporting 3rd parties.
  • Assassination of Medgar Evers

    Assassination of Medgar Evers
    -Medgar Evers was killed outside of his house in Jackson, Mississippi.
    -He was shot by a white supremacist leader named Byron De La Beckwith.
    -After the funeral in Mississippi he was buried with full military honors in Virginia.
    -President John F. Kennedy and many other leaders publicly condemned the killing against the African America civil rights activist.
  • March on Washington “I have a Dream”

    March on Washington “I have a Dream”
    -The March on Washington was a massive protest in which African Americans gathered in Washington D.C. to fight for jobs and freedom.
    -This march is where the famous "I have a Dream" speech by MLK takes place.
    -The event sparked national headlines as about 250,000 people arrived in Washington.
  • Bombing of a church in Birmingham

    Bombing of a church in Birmingham
    -The bombing occurred on the 16th Street Baptist Church on a Sunday morning before Sunday services.
    -The church consisted of blacks as well as civil rights leaders.
    -Four young girls were killed and many injuries followed.
    -Outrage in the African American community followed as little was done by the police.
  • Assassination of John F. Kennedy

    Assassination of John F. Kennedy
    -President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
    -The president was shot in the neck as he, his wife, and the governor rode through the Dealey Plaza.
    -He was rushed to the hospital minutes after, but nothing could be done and JFK was announced dead at 1pm on November 22nd, 1963.
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    -The Freedom Summer was also known as the Mississippi Summer Project and aimed towards black voter registration in the state of Mississippi.
    -The police and KKK carried out many attacks against the group.
    -the Freedom Summer workers included black Mississippians and some white volunteers.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    -The 24th amendment ended mandatory poll taxes that prevented many African Americans from voting.
    -The amendment is very significant because African Americans faced great discrimination in the south and could not vote for political officials that would work to end the discrimination which allowed discrimination to keep happening.
    -However literacy tests were created which you would have to pass in order to vote.
    -This hurt many poor illiterate African Americans.
  • Killing of Goodman, Chaney, Schwerner

    Killing of Goodman, Chaney, Schwerner
    -Michae Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney disappeared on June 21st, 1964.
    -The three men were civil rights activists and knew their work was dangerous as the Ku Klux Klan was relevant.
    -The FBI finally uncovered the missing bodies of Schwerner, Chaney, and Goodman on August 4th, 1964.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    -The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
    -The act is considered the greatest legislative achievement of the civil rights movement.
    -In later years, Congress expanded the act and passed additional civil rights legislation like the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Assassination of Malcolm X

    Assassination of Malcolm X
    -Malcolm Little who is well known as Malcolm X was murdered by his rival black muslims in Washington.
    -Malcolm X was a nonviolent leader in the Civil Rights movement and gained many followers throughout his campaign.
    -Other groups however violently disrupted Malcolm X as his house was bombed and then a week later he was fatally shot by another social group.
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    Selma to Montgomery March

    -The Selma to Montgomery March was a 54 mile march that protested against voting rights and registration.
    -The protesters faced great violence as the heart of Alabama was extremely racist.
    -The march raised awareness of the immense difficulties that black voters faced which led to the Voting Rights Act.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    -Many African Americans were not able to become eligible to vote.
    -The Voting Rights Act was issued to try to help these African Americans.
    -The act was supposed to overcome legal barriers that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote which was guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Black Panthers Formed

    Black Panthers Formed
    -The Black Panthers were a political group that challenged the fact that blacks were brutally treated by police in the streets.
    -The Black Panthers peak reached about 2,000 members and they wore all black including leather jackets.
    -The group was dismantled due to FBI and other interference.
  • Loving v Virginia

    Loving v Virginia
    -Loving v. Virginia was a Court case that stressed state laws banning interracial marriage in the United States.
    -The couple was Richard and Mildred Loving and they were a white male and black female couple.
    -Their marriage was deemed illegal in the state of Virginia.
    -The decision led to an increase in interracial marriage laws.
  • Minneapolis Riots

    Minneapolis Riots
    -Racial tensions in Northern Minneapolis rose leading to an outbreak of violence and vandalism.
    -The riot is linked with other race-related demonstrations in cities across the nation during 1967’s which was a time of great rioting.
    -There were no fatalities, but 24 were injured.
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    Detroit Riots

    -The most famous Detroit riot was knows as the 12th street riot and is considered the bloodiest race riot during the summer of 1967.
    -The riot was between blacks and Detroit policemen.
    -The results from the riot were 43 dead, 1,189 injured, over 7,200 arrests, and more than 2,000 buildings destroyed.
  • Assassination of MLK

    Assassination of MLK
    -Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was killed by an assassin in Memphis, Tennessee.
    -MLK was shot by a sniper in the Lorraine Motel and was rushed to the hospital.
    -He was pronounced dead an hour later causing an outpour of angered African Americans.
  • Assassination of Robert “Bobby” Kennedy

    Assassination of Robert “Bobby” Kennedy
    -Senator Robert Kennedy was shot in Los Angeles after he won the California presidential primary.
    -He was shot by 22-year-old Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan.
    -The next day Robert Kennedy was pronounced dead.
    -Kennedy was perceived by many to be the only person in American politics that was capable of uniting the people which makes his early death extremely significant.