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Civil Rights

By ndray2
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    In 1892 Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car. Which was breaking a Louisianna law at the time. Plessy tried to take this to court but they said that his constitutional rights were not violated in this incident. They weren't violated in the 13th or 14th amendment. The court ruled againt Plessy 7-1. They said that the laws that the state had were "reasonable" so they didn't go against the 14th amendment. Restrictive legistlation based on race was not overturned untill Brown.
  • Jackie Robinson

    Jackie Robinson
    Jackie is known for breaking the color barrier in the MLB. Where he had to endure several racial slurs from fans and even the other teams. His courage helped pave the way for other African American athletes. Also helped the Civil Rights Movement. He tried to help African Americans get jobs with the same tactics as when he was in the MLB.
  • Sweatt v Painter

    Sweatt v Painter
    In 1946 Herman Sweatt apllied for admission at the University of Texas School of Law. He was turned down because of his race. The NAACP stepped and help Sweatt take this to court. It made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court. They said that it had violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Sweatt won as the court that they should get the same rights as the white people. This allowed African Americans across the counrty to get into all white schools.
  • Sweatt v Painter Link

  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    This was actually 5 seperate cases. These cases were Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Briggs v. Elliot, Davis v. Board of Education of Prince Edward County (VA.), Boiling v. Sharpe, and Gebhart v. Ethel. All cases had a main conflict and it was that the state-sponsered segregated public schools. Cases went to U.S. Supreme Court in 1952. The cases stated that the states violated "equal protection clause" of the 14th Amendment. The case was undecided. The states made plans for desegration.
  • Brown v Board of Education Link

  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    It was a big organization during the Civil Rights Movement. They had a hand in the Freedom Rides, the Freedom Summer, and March on Washington. The CORE embraced a nonviolent movement. Later the had shifted to the politcal side of black nationalism. They became famous for the sit ins at the start. Voting had became another important focus of thiers. They had help in Alabama, and pretty much every where in the south. The focus of the CORE was to get the African American thier righs.
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    Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

    The CORE was a very active group during the movement. They had helped MLK in alot of things, including his March to DC. Which is their most famous. They helpd in Freedom Rides as well. They were another group in the fight for freedom for African Americans.
  • Montgomery bus boycott

    Montgomery bus boycott
    This was a boycott where African Americans refused to ride the Montgomery city buses. Rosa Parks started this. She was riding a bus and was told to sit in the back but refused to give her seat up for a white man. She was arrested and went to court, for a trial that lasted 381 days. The boycott started when she went to court. The U.S. Supreme Court ordered that Montgomery to intergrate their city buses. This boycott gave birth to a promonate leader in the civil rights movement known as MLK.
  • The Southern Manifesto

    The Southern Manifesto
    Howard Smith of Virginia, chairman of the House Rules Committee, brought up the Southern Manifesto in a speech. Which was signed by 82 Representatives and 19 Senators. The Manifesto was going against Brown v Board of education ruling. That schools that are segregated are unfair, faciltiy wise and education. Manifesto attacked Brown and the abuse of "Judical Powers". It urged all southerns to prevent this desegregation from happening,
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    The SCLC can be traced back to the Montogomery Bus Boycott. Which hepled establish Montgomery Improvement Association. Which was lead by MLK, with Raplh David as the manager. Despite the bombing of the church of Ralph David Abernathy. 60 people and 10 states assembled the SCLC. Which was based on transportation and nonviolent integration. MLK was one of the 1st presidents of this organization. Hepled with the sit ins' and the Freedom Rides. Also had alot of help in Martin protest and campaign.
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    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    The SCLC started back during the Greensboro Sit ins. They have had important impact on MLK campaigns. He waas once the leader of the SCLC. They were a major part of the movement.
  • Little Rock - Central High School

    Little Rock - Central High School
    Schools were ruled across the country to integrate the schools. 9 balck students enrolled into this school. The governor of Arkansas sent the American National Guard to prevent them from coming on the 1st day. They didn't make their 1st day untill the 25th. When Eisenhower called to US Army to help escort them. They were harrassed almost evey day. National guard stayed to help. One year after Central integrated the governor closed the school for an entire year.
  • Greensboro sit-in

    Greensboro sit-in
    Four African Americans peacefully protested by siting in a dinner that refused to serve anybody but whites. They had help from a white business man. They were inspired by nonviolent protest of Ghandi. They were told to leave but they refused. The 4 stayed to closing. They came everyday and brought more people from the local colleges. By Feb. 5th there was 300 students protesting. In response to this protest dinners across the south were integrated. The SNCC was founded due to this protest.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    Was created after the "Greesnboro 4". Their aim was to help young Afriacn Americans have a voice. They played a large part in the "Freedom Rides". Helped with black voting in the south. Their 3 members died at the hands of the KKK. Stokley who was introduced as a leader in 1966 moved the term "Black Power" to help the cause. He was arrested later for starting a riot.
  • "Freedom Rides"

    "Freedom Rides"
    The Freedom Rides were aimed to end segrated buses in the south, helped by CORE. The 1st few days nothing happened but they began to get beaten. Some of the buses were burned. The CORE didn't want to stop because of the violence, so they rode a bus to Montgomery where they were mobbed by 1000 whites. The violoence had put pressure on JFK to end it. It continued into the summer where the movment had spread thoughout the south in train stations and airports. In Nov segregated transportaion ended.
  • Freedom Rides Link

  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    More than 200,000 people particpated in the march. It was for freedom and social cahnges for African Americans. This is where MLK spoke his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. Which called for racial eqaulity for everyone. This march was a big success for The Civil Rights Movement. It helped move the racial issues in the right way.
  • "Letter from Brimingham Jail"

    "Letter from Brimingham Jail"
    It was a letter that was addressed to several celergy men who were critizing him and the SCLC. He addresses thier concerns. Tells them that he is here to fix the "injustice" and fells that he can work anywhere that this is happening in. Then explains the reasoning of the SCLC and that is here to help the racism and campaign nonviolent action. Then he goes on to address their other concerns centralized around the SCLC.
  • Medgar Evers

    Medgar Evers
    He was assassinted on this day. In his own driveway. He was rejected to join Ole Miss school of law because he was black. Which caught the eye of the NAACP, he worked with them as the 1st feild sectretary in Jackson, Mississippi. He organized voter-registration efforts, demonstrations, and economic boycotts of white-owned companies that practiced discrimination. Most known case was the lynching of Emmet Till.
  • Birmingham Church Bombing Link

  • Bombing of Brimingham Church

    Bombing of Brimingham Church
    It was a bomb that was placed outside the church and blew up killing 4 young black girls and injuring many. This bombing brought national news to the African American Civil Rights Movement. This church was a known meeting place for civil rights leaders. Many people had began protesting because of this bombing, MLK spoke in front of 8000 people at the funeral of the girls. This bombing helped end segregation. It was a driving force to finally end it. The attackers were arrested way later.
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment

    Twenty-fourth Amendment
    It stopped State and Congress from having a poll tax. Even though it wasn't a big tax, but it was enough to keep poor African Americans from voting. It helped African Americans who were scared to vote, have the ability to vote without being discriminated. The 15th amednment gave them the right to vote but the states found ways around the system. This hepled the African Americans REALLY vote.
  • 24th Amednment Link

  • Mississippi Freedom Summer

    Mississippi Freedom Summer
    It was a organized a voter registration drive, known as the Mississippi Freesom Summer. It was organized by the CORE and SNCC. They were attacked by the KKK, police, 1000 out-of-state voters, and more. The police arrested several innocent voters. The voters had been showing up in the past. This project helped set up 50 schools to carry on community organizing. But they didn't mass any number of voters. The MFS deepened the divinsion in those in favour of segregation and those not.
  • Civil Rights Act passed

    Civil Rights Act passed
    This act ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. It was proposed by JFk, then it went through Congress. It was approved by the HOR in a 290-130 vote. Then it moved to Senate which took 75 days. The Act also forbidded the government to fund any discrimination programs.
  • Malcolm X assassinated

    Malcolm X assassinated
    Malcolm was an activist and an outspoken voice in Black Mulsin faith. He didn't use nonviolence like MLK. He told his protestors to protect themselves from the white people. Malcolm once thought that white people were the devil until his travel to Mecca where they preached that all races were equal. He founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He influece helped the SNCC use "black power". He said that he would be more important in death than life.
  • Selma to Montgomery march

    Selma to Montgomery march
    It was to help black voters, have the ability to vote. MLK and the SCLC encouraged the march to help blacks vote. 700 protestors tried to march but were stopped by state troopers and were beaten with whips, this was all caught on television. Which enrages alot of Americans. So they went to Selma to protest. So then 2000 set out on the 21st whom are protected by the US Army and ANG. They reached Montgomery on the 25th. 50000 supporters met them in Montgomery, this led to the Voting Rights Act.
  • Voting Rights Act approved

    Voting Rights Act approved
    The Act was sign by Johnson. It was aimed at helping African Americans vote, by overcoming legal barriers at the state and local levels. In response by the violoence brought to peacefull potestors, Johnson had been put into action. He met Congress he spoke of the African Ameicans not voting. The act banned the use of literacy tests. As a result of this the amount black voters in the south go up alot.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    They were formed in California. They were only on the secene for a little bit but proved pivotal for the movement. The Black Panthers were a violoent organization. They were saw out as a violoent and threat to internal secuirty, but was very wrong. They provided the Free Food Program for those who couldn't afford their own food. Also provided health care to those in need known as Free Medical Research Health Clinics. The black Panthers created the Intercommunal Youth Band for the movement.
  • James Meredith

    James Meredith
    James was the 1st the African American to attend the Universtiy of Mississippi. He was shot at by a sniper during the "March Against Fear", trying to encourage blacks to vote. He survived and joined back the march on the 26th. They reached Jackson, Mississippi. He went to court to go to Ole Miss, he was at 1st denied for his race. This was his 1st civil right movement act.
  • King assassinated

    King assassinated
    Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister and founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He had led a strong Civil Rights Movement. He was known for his non-violent tactics. He is also known for his March to DC where he spoke his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. His impact is enormous, he has his own holiday. His death led to Johnson moving into action siging the Civil Rights Act.
  • Primary Sources