The Smith Act is a U.S federal law passed in 1940 that made it a criminal offense to advocate the violent overthrow of the government. It required fingerprinting and regulating of all aliens in the US. It was the basis of later prosecutions of members of the Communist and Socialist Workers parties
Smith Act, Little Boy Bomb, Iron Curtain, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift, Bay of Pigs, My Lai Massacre, Tet Offensive, Apollo 11
Officially the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, the G.I Bill provided benefits to veterans of World War II. The bill provided grants for school and college tuition, low-interest mortgages, hiring privileges, and unemployment payments. From 1944 to 1949 nearly 9 million veterans received close to $4 billion from the bill's unemployment compensation program. Legislation later extended these benefits to all who served in armed forces.
G.I Bill, Fair Deal, Television, The Beat Generation, Television-Politics, Polio Vaccine, Dr. Jonas Salk, Bill Haley and the Comets, Elvis Presley, Little Richard
Little Boy Bomb
Little Boy was the first atomic bomb used against Japan in World War II, detonated over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. About 140 pounds of highly enriched uranium-235 was used to create "Little Boy". The bomb created an area of complete devastation destroying around 4.7 square miles of the city, killing 70,000-80,0000 people.
The term "iron curtain" received prominence after Winston Churchill's speech after he said "iron curtain has descended across Europe". The iron curtain is the boundary line that divided Europe into two different political areas. Western Europe had political freedom and Eastern Europe was under communist Soviet rule. It was only in 1991 when the Cold War ended that the Iron Curtain ceased to exist
On March 12, 1947 President Harry S. Truman asks for U.S assistance for Greece and Turkey. He wanted to forestall communist domination of the two nations. It pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy and led to the formation of NATO.
The Marshall Plan was created by Secretary of State, George C. Marshall. The plan would provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery. The United States gave over $13 billion after the end of World War II. 17 countries participated in the plan. Its goal was to restore confidence of the European people
It all started with the Soviet blockade. The Soviet Union blocked all road and rail travel to and from West Berlin in response to the refusal of American and British officials to allow Russia more say in the economic future of Germany. After seeing this action President Truman ordered US planes to fly in supplies to the people of West Berlin. For nearly a year, American planes landed around the clock. By the time Soviets ended the blockade West Germany had become a independent nation.
The Fair Deal was the name given to Harry Truman's domestic program. His Fair Deal recommended that all Americans have health insurance, minimum wage be increased, and by law Americans be guaranteed equal rights. Truman announced the Fair Deal in a speech on January 5 1949. Only extensions of some New Deal programs were enacted.
One of the most popular products in the 1950s was the TV. At the start of the decade, there were about 3 million TV owners, by the end of it , there were 55 million watching shows from 530 stations. The average price of TV sets dropped from $500 in 1949 to $200 in 1953. The spread of TV had a huge cultural impact. It made itself felt in U.S politics and entertainment.
The Beat Generation
The Beat Generation American social and literary movement originating in the 1950s and centered in bohemian artists communities. It rose to prominence in America inspiring a culture of nonconformity. Teenagers railed against the prudery of their parents generation. Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac were some of the more famous faces in beat generation.
Television changed how Americans in the 1950s saw their political system and in do doing changed politics itself. Political campaigns started resembling the era commercial campaigns. One of the most influential appearances by a politician in the 1950s was Richard Nixon's Checkers Speech which secured his spot in the election. Television greatest impact though was arguably increasing awareness of racial injustice which helped build support for major civil rights reform.
Earl Warren Supreme Court
Earl Warren was a prominent 20th century leader of American politics and law. After failing to claim the Republican nomination for the presidency, he was appointed the 14th chief justice of the U.S Supreme Court. His landmark case was Brown v. Board of Education in which the Court determined the segregation of schools to be unconstitutional. The Warren Court also sought electoral reforms, equality in criminal justice and the defense of human rights.
Earl Warren Supreme Court, New Frontier, Peace Corps, Assassination of JFK, Counter Culture, Daisy Girl Ad, LSD, Barry Goldwater, The Great Society. Hippies
On March 26, 1953 American medical researcher Dr. Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against polio. Polio attacks the nervous system and can cause varying degrees of paralysis. Once the vaccine was announced it was tested on schoolchildren and proven to be effective.
Dr. Jonas Salk
Dr. Jonas Salk was an American biologist and physician best known fro the research and development of a killed-virus polio vaccine. When the vaccine was approved for general use Salk became a national hero. The vaccine helped biological studies and saved many lives. President Eisenhower gave him a special citation at a ceremony held at the White House.
Bill Haley and the Comets 1950s
One of the first major rock n roll songs of the 1950s was "Rock Around The Clock." The song was made popular by the American group Bill Haley and His Comers a band from Philadelphia that morphed into rock n roll. Their sound was unique at the time and Bill Haley and His Comets had started something of a revolution, they had made rock n roll popular.
Brown v Board of Education
Topeka board of education denied Linda Brown admittance to an all white school close to her house. Thurgood Marshall argued that a separate but equal violated equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. In the end a unanimous Supreme Court declared that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
Brown v Board of Education, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Little Rock 9, Civil Rights Act of 1957, SNCC, Freedom Rides, MLK letter from the Birmingham Jail, Freedom Summer, Black Panther Party, Death of MLK
Elvis Presley- 1950's
The King of Rock 'n' Roll after graduating in 1953 worked a number of jobs while pursuing his musical dream. "That's All Right" was Elvis Presley's first single in 1954. In 1955 Presley's fan base grew bigger as people were drawn to his unusual musical style, dancing, and good looks. That same year he signed with RCA Records. Soon Presley was everywhere on the radio, TV and the silver screen working as a musician and actor. To this day Elvis still remains "The King".
Little Richard is an US African-American singer and pianist whose hit songs of the mid-1950s were defining moments in the development of rock and roll. He scored hits that combined childish lyrics with sexually suggestive undertones. As his success grew Little Richard appeared in some of earliest rock n roll movies such as Mr. Rock and Roll. Little Richard is a living treasure of 20th-century American culture.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Sparks sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott by not giving her seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a civil-rights protest which African Americans refused to ride city buses. The primary goal was to desegregate bus seating. Taking place from December 5, 1955 to December 20,1956 the boycott is regarded as the first large scale U.S. demonstration against segregation. Eventually the U.S Supreme Court ordered Montgomery to integrate its bus system.
Little Rock 9
The Little Rock Nine were a group of nine black students who enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957. Their attendance at the school was a test of Brown v. Board of Education. On September 4, 1957, at Central High, Governor Orval Faubus called in the Arkansas National to block the students entry into the school. Later that month President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine into the school.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
On September 9, 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1957. This act created the United States commission on civil rights to investigate systematic discrimination in areas such as voting.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was a civil rights group formed to give young blacks more of an opinion. SNCC grew out of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The SNCC were also leaders of the sit-in protest movement. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North.
The New Frontier was the campaign program advocated by John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights. JFK Democratic slogan inspired America to support him.
Freedom Riders were groups of white and African American civil rights activists who participated in Freedom Rides. Freedom Rides are bus trips through the South to protest against segregation. Riders often tried to use "white-only" restrooms, lunch counters, bus stations while traveling. Along their routes the groups were confronted by harsh police officers as well as violence from white protestors. Even through this horrific trauma, freedom riders dree international attention to their cause.
The Peace Corps is a federal agency created by President Kennedy in 1961. It provides labor power to help developing counties improve their infrastructure, health care, educational systems, and other aspects of their societies. The organization represented an effort by postwar liberals to promote American values and influence through productive exchanges across the world.
Bay of Pigs
In 1961 the United States sent rained Cuban exiles to Cuba to try and overthrow Fidel Castro's government. The plan was Cuban exiles living in America would attack Cuba through flight, water, and guerilla warfare. They failed miserably. The invasion is considered part of the Cold War because the United States was trying to prevent communism from taking hold in America.
MLK letter from Birmingham Jail
The Letter from Birmingham Jail was written by Martin Luther King Jr on April 16,1963. King was arrested during the Birmingham protests. While in jail he writes this letter that explains the civil rights movement and defend the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism. It was written in response to a letter written buy eight white clergyman who criticizing Kings tactics.
Assassination of JFk
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated while traveling thorugh Dallas, Texas in an open-top convertible. The President was accompanied by his wife Jacky and Governor Connally and his wife while on a campaign trip . While in a motorcade shots was fired and a bullet pierced the base of the neck of the president and exited through his throat. The assassination sent shockwaves around the world and turned Kennedy into a larger-than-life heroic figure.
Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration drive. Organizations such as CORE, SNCC, and the NAACP were the main leaders of the protest. The number one goal was to put an end to the disenfranchisement of blacks in the Deep South. It took place in towns scattered throughout the state of Mississippi with their many "Freedom Schools." Freedom Summer gained national support for their cause and eventually led to the establishment of the 1965 Voting Rights Act
The 1960s were a period when long-held values and norms of behavior seemed to break down, particularly among the young. Left-wing politics in the 1960s attracted primarily middle-class students. Attitudes toward sexuality appeared to loosen, and women began to openly protest the traditional roles of housewife and mother that society had assigned to them.
Daisy Girl Aid
On September 7, 1964, a 60-second TV ad changed American politics forever. A 3- year old girl counted as she plucked daisy petals in a field. Her words were supplanted by a mission control countdown followed by a massive nuclear blast. Its message was Johnson was better than Goldwater as Goldwater is destructive like the blast.
LSD played an important part in the 1960s counterculture movement. The drug also known as "acid" was credited with expanding the minds of young people. Albert Hofmann was the discoverer of LSD. Acid inspired things such as music, the famous group The Beatles used the drug when writing songs.
In 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson was opposed by Barry Goldwater. Barry is an Republican Arizona senator who attacked the federal income tax. He also attacked the Social Security system, the Tennessee Valley Authority, Civil Rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society. Goldwater lost to Johnson by a massive landslide.
President Lyndon John called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education
Hippies were people who were apart of the counter cultural movement that rejected the ways of mainstream American life. The movement started on college campuses and eventually spread. Hippies started their own lifestyle. They favored long hair and dressing in loud colors. They often were vegetarians and developed small businesses to help other hippies. Hippies also promoted drugs and non violence.
Black Panther Party
The Black Panthers was a political organization founded in 1966 by Huey Newton. The organization challenged police brutality against the African American community. Dressed in black berets and black leather jackets, the Black Panthers organized armed citizen patrols of Oakland and other U.S cities. The movement was one of the most significant movements with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects.
The Tet Offensive was a coordinated series of North Vietnamese attacks on more than 100 cities and outposts in South Vietnam. Tet was an attempt to foment rebellion among the South Vietnamese population. The attacks were carried out against five major South Vietnamese cities, military installations, and town and villages throughout South Vietnam.
My Lai Massacre
The My Lai Massacre took place on March 16, 1968 in the district of Son My. United States Army troops murdered several hundred Vietnamese civilians at the village. The victims were mostly elderly men, women and children and all non-combatants. When the facts of the massacre became known, war crime charges were brought against 30 soldiers and there was a marked increase in both domestic and foreign pressure to end the war.
Death of MLK
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. King was standing on the second-floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel, where he and his associates were staying, when a sniper's bullet hit him in the neck. He was rushed to a hospital, where he was pronounced dead about an hour later. MLK was only 39. His assassination led to an outpouring of angry black Americans, as well as a period of national mourning.
On July 20,1969 American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first humans ever to land on the moon. The Apollo 11 mission happened 8 years after President John Kennedy announced a national goal of landing a man on the moon. It was also the second all-veteran crew in manned spaceflight history. As Armstrong he said the famous words "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
The New Right, The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, Equal Rights Amendment, Watergate Scandal, Heritage Foundation, OPEC, Endangered Species Act, Camp David Accords, Three Mile Island, The Moral Majority
The New Right
The New Right is the movement of American conservatives in the 1970s/1980s that opposed to liberal policies on taxes, abortion, affirmative action and foreign policy stances on the Soviet Union. This movement lent substantial support to the Republican Party. Ronald Reagan was a player of the New Right movement and won the election because of its support.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
The Federal Election Campaign Act was a law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission, provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Equal Rights Amendment
The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972. The amendment says that civil rights may not be denied on the basis of one's sex. After the 19th Amendment suffragist leader Alice Paul introduced ERA in 1923 to bring equal justice under law to all citizens. However it was failed by 3 states.
On June 17, 1972 prowlers were arrested in the office of the Democratic National Committee located in the Watergate complex of buildings. The prowlers were connected to Pres. Richard Nixon's reelection campaign and they had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Nixon took steps to cover up the crime and after his role in the conspiracy was proven to be true, Nixon resigned. The Watergate Scandal lead to many Americans questioning their leaders.
The Heritage Foundation was founded in 1973. Its a right-wing think tank. The Heritage Foundation mission is to formulate an promote public policies based on free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.
OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC aimed to control access to and prices of oil, wresting power from Western oil companies and investors. In the process, it gradually strengthened the hand of non-Western powers on the world stage.
Endangered Species Act
The Endangered Species Act is a key legislation for domestic and international conservation. ESA provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. The act was signed by Nixon on December 28,1973.
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords is an historic peace agreement negotiated between Egypt and Israel at the U.S. Presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland. Under the pact Israel agreed to return captured territory to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Three Mile Island
Three Mile Island is the site of a nuclear power plant in south central Pennsylvania. It partially melted down on March 28, 1979. Some radioactive gas was released a couple of days after the accident, but not enough to cause any dose above background levels to local residents. Its aftermath brought about sweeping changes involving emergency response planning and reactor operator training.
The Moral Majority
The Moral Majority was formed in 1979 by Jerry Falwell a religious leader and televangelist. It was made to advance conservative social values. Although it disbanded in 1989, the Moral Majority helped to establish the religious right as a force in American politics.
Election of 1980
The U.S presidential election of 1980 was between Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan. Reagan won easily and was very popular. Carter won only six states and the District of Columbia, putting the Republicans back in control for the first time in 25 years.
Election of 1980, Regaecomics, MTV, Sandra Day O'Connor, SDI, Sam Walton JIT, VHS, Reagan Doctrine, Iran Contra Affair, Challenger Explosion
Reaganomics is Pres. Ronald Reagan's conservative economic policy that attacked the 1980 recession and stagflation. Reaganomics promised to reduce the government's influence on the economy. It is based on the theory of supply-side economics, that corporate tax cuts are the best way to grow the economy.
ON August 1, 1981 MTV was launched on television. It would later be known to define pop culture, change generations, and shape an industry. MTV offered music videos, VJs, and music news. The first video ever played on the network was "Video Killed The Radio Star" by The Buggles. The slogan " I want my MTV!" became a big advertising campaign.
Sandra Day O' Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor is the first female U.S. Supreme Court justice in history. O'Connor attended Stanford University and Stanford Law School. Because she was a woman, no law firm she applied to would hire her for a good position so eventually she started a private law firm. On July 7, 1981, Pres. Ronald Reagan nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the seat of retiring justice Potter Stewart. On September 25, 1981, she was sworn in as the first woman justice in the Supreme Court.
Strategic Defense Initiative
The Strategic Defense Initiative was Pres. Reagan's intent to pursue a high technology missile defense system in order to prevent missile attacks from other countries. However the "Star Wars" program was dismissed with pressure from both domestic and international fronts.
Sam Walton Just-in-Time Inventory
Samuel Walton was founder and chairman of Walmart Inc, the world's largest retailer. JIT Inventory System was established by Walton. This method eliminates the need for storage at each store. Instead, the local distribution center can know with satellite when a store is nearly out of a product and a truck can bring in more.
The Video Home System( VHS) is a widely-adopted videocassette recording that was developed by Japan Victor Company (JVC).By the mid 1980s VHS had achieved supreme dominance in the home VCR market. However, Hollywood studios soon stopped offering movies on VHS.
The Reagan Doctrine was a promise to restore American pride and confidence. While the doctrine lasted less than a decade, it was the centerpiece of United States foreign policy from the early 1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1991.Under the Reagan Doctrine, the U.S. provided aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movements in an effort to "rollback" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Iran Contra Affair
The Sandinistas are pro-Communist and overthrow pro-American dictator in Nicaragua in 1979. Pres. Regan secretly arms Contras against Sandinistas and Congress finds out. Reagan Administration continues illegally supporting Contras selling weapons to Iran and exchanged for the release of American hostages.
The NASA space shuttle Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986. Just 73 seconds after liftoff the space shuttle erupted in flames claiming the lives of all seven astronauts aboard. It was later determined that two rubber O-rings had failed due to cold temperatures on the morning of the launch. The tragedy and its aftermath received extensive media coverage and NASA temporarily suspend all shuttle missions
Rodney King Incident
Rodney King was an African American who became a symbol of racial tension in American after being beaten by Los Angeles police officers. The officers were charged with criminal offenses including assault with a deadly weapon. The incident triggered riots in South Central, Los Angeles. More than 50 people were killed and 9,500 were arrested for rioting, looting and arson resulting in $1 billion in property damages.
Rodney King, World Trade Center 1993, Health Care Reform, Email Don't Ask Don't Tell, NAFTA, Defense of Marriage Act, Lewinsky Affair, Welfare Reform Act 1996, BET
World Trade Center Attack 1993
On February 26, 1993, terrorists drove a rental van into a parking garage under the World Trade Center's twin towers and lit the fuses on a homemade bomb stuffed inside. 6 people died and more than 1,000 were injured in the explosion. At the time, it was one of the worst terrorist attacks ever to occur on U.S soil. It would eventually be overshadowed by the 9/11 attacks.
Health Care Reform
This was a 1993 Health Care Reform package under the Clinton Administration that required each US citizen and permanent resident alien to become enrolled in a qualified health plan. President Clinton set up a task force led by his wife to come up with a plan to provide universal health care along these lines. The bill was defeated in 1994 because there were not enough Democratic senators behind the bill.
Electronic mail or e-mail since around 1993 has been the leading form of internet communication. Email let friends and families stay in touch electronically across the globe and encourages new connections as people made new 'pen' pals from other countries and different cultures.
Don't Ask Don't Tell Policy
Don't Ask Don't Tell is the common term for the policy about homosexuality in the U.S. mandated by federal law. The policy prohibits anyone who shows an intent to engages in homosexual acts from serving in the armed forces. This is because it would create a risk to high standards of morale and discipline. The act also prohibits any homosexual person from disclosing his/her sexual orientation.
The North American Free Trade Agreement took effect January 1st 1994. It created a free-trade area between the US, Canada, and Mexico. Also it provides for the tariff-free movement of goods and products. financial services, telecommunications, investment, and patent protection within and between the signatories
The Monica Lewinsky scandal began in the late 1990s. America was rocked by a political sex scandal involving Pres. Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky a 22-year old White House intern. In 1995 the two started an intimate relationship that continued until 1997. After this Lewinsky was transferred to the Pentagon where she confided in someone about her affair. In 1998 after the affair became public Clinton denied the relationship but later admitted to it. He still finished his second term
Welfare Reform Act 1996
The Welfare Reform Act represents the federal government's attempt to reform the welfare system. It increased the power of the states relative to the federal government replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program with block grants to the states. That illustrated the process of devolution by giving states greater discretion to determine how to implement the federal goal of transferring people from welfare to work.
Defense of Marriage Act
The Defense o Marriage Act was enacted September 21,1996. DOMA states that the federal government has to recognize the legal marriage of same-sex couples. The benefits to same-sex couples include rights of inheritance, joint tax returns, tax exemption etc. The act stayed in force from 1996 to 2013.
Black Entertainment Television(BET) was created by Robert Johnson in the late 1970s. BET was designed for the African American public. The channel became popular in the late 1990s with several news programs including Lead Story. By the early 2000s its switched its focus to entertainment programs primarily airing rap videos. In 2005 BET was sold to Viacom for $3 billion dollars making Robert Johnson the first black billionaire.
Bush v. Gore
The case of Bush v gore is very famous for it had a great effect on the 2000 presidential election.The Supreme Court of the United States reversed a Florida Supreme Court for a selective manual recount of that state's U.S. presidential election ballots. The 5–4 decision awarded Florida’s 25 votes in the electoral college. So the election itself was given to Republican candidate George W. Bush.
Bush v Gore, 9/11 attacks, War on Terror, PATRIOT ACT, No Child Left Behind Act, Recession, Housing Bubble, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Sonia Sotomayor, Affordable Care Act.
On September 11, 2001 19 militants that were apart of the group al-Qaeda hijacked 4 airplanes and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. 2 of the planes were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Almost 3,00 people were killed during the attacks. It triggered major U.S initiatives to fight terrorism.
War on Terror
War on Terror is a term used to describe the American-led global counterterrorism campaign. The war on terror was launched in response to the 9/11 attacks. It involved opening and converting military operation, new security legislation, and efforts to block financing of terrorism. Washington called on other states to join in on the fight against terrorism.
The USA PATRIOT ACT is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. It was passed due to the 9/11 attacks. It sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information. Criticized by some as violating civil liberties.
No Child Left Behind Act
The No Child Let Behind Act authorizes a lot of federal education programs that are administered by the states. The law is a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Act. Under the law , states are required to test student is reading and math (STAAR). The goal of the act is to close student achievement gaps by provided all children with a fair and equal opportunity to get a high-quality education.
The Great Recession
The Great Recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. It the longest recession since World War II. The recession has had long-term lingering effects on unemployment. It was preceded by the largest housing bubble in US history caused by short term economic thinking, speculation, and irresponsible spending.
In the 'housing bubble' the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates in response to the end of the technology surge. They did this by encouraging investors to purchase real estate, causing another "bubble" and increased housing prices.On December 30, 2008, the Case–Shiller home price index reported its largest price drop in its history.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009. $787 Million was spent to revive the economy in the U.S. create jobs, promote investment and consumer spending.
Sonia Sotomayor is known for being the first Hispanic justice nominee on the United States Supreme Court. She is known as being controversial and outspoken who is sometimes misinterpreted yet she is distinguished for her many years of judicial service. In 2009, she became the Court’s 111th Justice, the first Hispanic Justice and third woman to serve in the US Supreme Court.
Afforable Care Act
The law was signed by President Barack Obama on March 23,2010. The act includes a long list of health-related provisions that began taking effect in 2010. It is intended to extend coverage to millions of uninsured Americans, to lower health care costs, and to eliminate industry practices that include rescission.