Civil Rights: From Reconstruction to Today

  • Sharecropping/Tenant Farming

    Sharecropping/Tenant Farming
    Sharecropping/Tenant Farming southern plantation owners were challenged to find help working the lands that slaves had farmed. Taking advantage of the former slaves' desire to own their own farms, plantation owners used arrangements called sharecropping and tenant farming.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    the 13th Amendment is "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation".
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    the Black Codes were laws passed by Democrat-controlled Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    the 15th Amendment is "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
    The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    the 14th Amendment is "nor shall any state deprive and person of life, liberty, or property with out the dew process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law. it was adapted on
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Plessy v. ferguson was a constitutional law case of the U.S Supreme Court decided in 1896. It upheld state racial laws for public facilities under the doctrine "separate but equal".
  • CORE

    CORE stands for The Congress of Racial Equality. it is an African American Civil Rights organization in the United states. it played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights movement.
  • Civil Disobedience

    Civil Disobedience
    Civil Disobedience is the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.disobedience is sometimes defined as having to be nonviolent to be called civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is sometimes, therefore, equated with nonviolent resistance.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education was a Supreme Court case in which the court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be inconsequential.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall was an an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served from October 1967 to October 1991. He was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement. the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She is most famous for refusing to give her seat up to a white passenger on a public bus.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    the Montgomery Bus Boycott was an event in the Civil Rights Movement. it was a political social protest against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery Alabama.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Orval Faubus was an american politician who served as 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. He is remembered for 1957 stand against desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the little Rock crisis
  • Little rock Nine

    Little rock Nine
    the Little rock Nine were a group of nine African American students that enrolled in Little Rock High school in 1957. at first they were prevented from entering the racial segregated school. They attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • Desegregation

    Desegregation is the ending of a policy of racial segregation. School integration in the United States is the process of ending race-based segregation, also known as desegregation, within American public and private schools. Racial segregation in schools existed throughout most of American history and remains a relevant issue in discussions about modern education. During the Civil Rights Movement school integration became a watershed event.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    Civil Rights Act of 1957 was a voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
  • SCLC

    SCLC stands forThe Southern Christian Leadership Conference. it is an African American civil rights organization. its first president was Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Sit-ins

    The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, it led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
  • Lynching

    kill someone, especially by hanging, for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial. It is most often used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group.
  • Stokely Carmichael

    Stokely Carmichael
    Stokely Carmichael was a Trinidadian-American who became a prominent figure in the Civil Rights Movement and the global Pan-African movement. He grew up in the United States. He became an activist while he attended Howard University.
  • Emment Till

    Emment Till
    Emment Till was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi. a white woman said she was offended by him in her family's grocery store.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States. to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960). it ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Cesar Chavez was an American labor leader and civil rights activists. He and Dolores Huerta founded the National Farm Workers Association in 1962.
  • Ole Miss Integration

    Ole Miss Integration
    Ole Miss Integration were riots erupted on the campus of the University of Mississippi in Oxford where locals, students, and committed segregationists had gathered to protest the enrollment of James Meredith, a black Air Force veteran attempting to integrate the all-white school.
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    Betty Friedan was an American writer, activist, and feminist. She was a leading figure in the woman's movement in the United States.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    George Wallace was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama. He served 2 nonconsecutive terms and 2 consecutive terms as a democrat. he served 1963- 1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  • U of Alabama Integration.

    U of Alabama Integration.
    U of Alabama Integration was a Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.
  • Non-violent Protest

    Non-violent Protest
    Non-violent Protest is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent. while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group.
  • Lester Maddox

    Lester Maddox
    Lester Maddox was an American Politician who served as the 75th of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. he is most famous for refusing to serve black costumers in his Atlanta restaurant. he was also Lieutenant Governor when Jimmy Carter was Governor.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.

    Martin Luther King Jr.
    Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist.
    He is known for being the leader in the Civil Rights Movement
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. it was enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued to be enforced until 1965.
  • voting rights act of 1965

    voting rights act of 1965
    the voting rights act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
  • Watts Riots

    Watts Riots
    Watts Riots took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 16, 1965. On August 11, 1965, an African-American motorist was arrested for suspicion of drunk driving. it was sometimes called the Watts Rebellion.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    Black Panthers was a revolutionary black nationalist and socialist organization. it was founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
  • Stokely Carmichael

    Stokely Carmichael
    Stokely Carmichael was a prominent member of the Civil Rights Movement and the Global Pan-African movement. he grew up in the united states from the age 11. he became a activist while attending Howard university. he became a member of the Black Power Movement. he would later become the leader of the SNCC(Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee).
  • March On Washington

    March On Washington
    the March On Washington was a major part of the vicil rights movement. the purpose of the march was to advocate for the economic rights of African Americans. Martin Luther king Jr.s famous speech "i have a dream" was delivered there.
  • Title IX (9)

    Title IX (9)
    Title IX (9) is a federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity. it was signed on June 23, 1972
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    Hector P. Garcia was an Mexican American physician , surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.