Charles as a martyr

Timeline Histoire Britannique (from Henry VIII to Elizabeth I)

  • Period: Apr 21, 1509 to Jan 28, 1547

    Henri VIII's reign

    • Henry VIII, to consolidate his power, decided to disband the monasteries
    • Their huge land and incomes were partly appropriated by the crown, partly redistributed among the nobility
    • The king is the uncontested ruler of the state. All English subjects had to embrace the Church of England with the king at its head. Power is progressively centralised
  • Nov 3, 1534

    First Act of Supremacy

    First Act of Supremacy
    Established the Anglocalism
    ➡ The King was made “Supreme Head of the Church of England”
  • 1536

    Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Wales were finally integrated to the Kingdom of England in 1536
  • 1537

    Production of an English Bible

    Production of an English Bible
    • An English bible was produced and made mandatory in churches. ➡ The Matthew Bible was first published by John Rogers, under the pseudonym "Thomas Matthew". ➡ It combined the New Testament of William Tyndale, and as much of the Old Testament as he had been able to translate before being captured and put to death.
  • Period: Jan 28, 1547 to Jul 6, 1553

    Edward VI’s reign

    "Lord Protector"
    - He was only 9 when his father died.
    - Edward was Protestant.
    - Thomas Cranmer wrote the 42 Articles
    - He died in 1553, aged 15.
    -The country was bankrupt, and his more radical take on the reform was divisive.
  • 1549

    The Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer
    During his short reign, Edward VI tries to make the Church of England more Protestant.
    The most important achievement of this process is the publication of the Book of Common Prayer in 1549, which replaced every nation's mass books in every church.
    ➡ It eventually led some rebellions in Cornwall and Devon.
  • Period: Jul 10, 1553 to Nov 17, 1558

    Mary I's reign

    • Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon (First queen regnant ever)
    • She wanted to restore Catholicism and make an alliance with the Habsburgs empire.
    • She married Phillip II of Spain.
    • She engaged England, allied with Spain, in a war against France. Calais was lost.
    • Queen Mary I died of illness in 1558
  • Period: 1554 to 1560

    Mary of Guise's reign

    Mary of Guise was regent.
    - In 1557 a revolt was led by John Knox, and in 1559 French troops tried to crush Presbyterian supporters. Then John Knox tried to convince Mary Stuart to adopt protestants ideas.
  • 1558

    The Two Bodies theory

    The Two Bodies theory
    In her first speech, Elizabeth presented the two bodies theory: she had a natural body (that of a woman, weak), and a political body (divine authority of the monarch)
  • Period: Jan 15, 1559 to

    Elizabeth I's reign

    • Elizabeth was a sincere protestant.
    • This new church of England, the Anglican church, was a compromise➡ it retained some catholic features and adopted protestants ideas.
    • Elizabeth, already excommunicated, led an important repression of Catholics.
  • May 8, 1559

    Second Act of supremacy

    Second Act of supremacy
    After Mary’s reign, Elizabeth reaffirmed the authority of the queen over the church, she became “supreme governor of the church of England”
  • May 8, 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    Every parish had to use the book of common prayer, and people who did not attend an Anglican service were fined.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39e article of faith

    Stated the doctrine of the church, a revised and tamed version of Edward VI’s 42 article. It still is the main doctrinal frame for the Anglican church of today
  • Period: 1568 to 1573

    Civil War in Scotland

    • Civil war in Scotland.
    • Mary Queen of Scots had to escape in England, where she was imprisoned for 19 years.
  • Period: 1568 to 1573

    Marian civil war

    Mary Stuart had to abdicate in 1568 (for marriage reasons… and religion?) from then a war between her supporters and those who ruled the country in the name of her infant son James VI (raised as a protestant).
  • Jul 24, 1568

    Abdication of Mary Stuart

    Abdication of Mary Stuart
    Mary Stuart had to abdicate in 1568 which led to the Marian Civil War
  • Period: Nov 9, 1569 to Jan 21, 1570

    The Northern Rebellion

    • Animated by the earls of Westmorland and Northumberland, they were backed by 6000 insurgents. Their aim was to replace Elizabeth y Mary,Queen of Scots (Catholic and next heir in line). The rebellion was crushed.
    • In 1570, just after the rebellion, the Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth.
  • 1570

    Elizabeth's excommunication by the Pope Pius V

    Elizabeth's excommunication by the Pope Pius V
    Just after the rebellion, the Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth.
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience

    The 1581 Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience
    -> Death penalty for converts; Catholic mass forbidden.
    - About 150-200 persons were killed during the repression.
  • Philipp II's attempt to invade Britain

    Philipp II's attempt to invade Britain
    In 1588, the King of Spain Philipp II will send the Spanish Armada to invade Britain. Due to weather conditions and a good naval strategy, the “invincible” armada will be defeated.