Period: Nov 17, 1558 to
Jan 15, 1559
Apr 28, 1559
Act of Uniformity~ Made it a legal obligation to go to church every Sunday
~ New Book of Common Prayer
~ Allowed substantial leeway for more traditionalist clergy to retain some of their vestments
~ In English
- After it's passinge, fourteen bishops were dismissed and a new Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker, was appointed
Jul 5, 1560
Treaty of EdinburghReplaced the Auld-Alliance with an Anglo-Scottish one, whilst maintainging peace with France.
All English and French troops removed from Scotland.
Sep 22, 1562
Treaty of Hampton CourtBetween Queen Elizabeth and the Huguenot leader. In it, Elizabeth promised 3000 English troops to occupy Le Havre and Dieppe. Moreover, Queen Elizabeth promised to provide economic aid to the Huguenots
Oct 10, 1562
Elizabeth contracted small poxElizabeth became so seriously ill with the disease that it was thought she would die. Fortunately, Elizabeth survived and was not too badly scarred, although the woman who had nursed her back to health, contracted the disease and was badly disfigured.
It was while Elizabeth was recovering from the illness that she ordered her council to make Robert Dudley protector of the kingdom and she made it clear that “as God was her witness nothing improper had ever passed between them.”
Jan 1, 1563
Convocation draws up 39 ArticlesThe 39 Articles form the basic summary of belief of the Church of England. They were not intended to provide a dogmatic definition of faith, they are phrased very loosely to allow for a variety of interpretations. They were based on the works of Thomas Cranmer
May 15, 1567
Mary Queen of Scots married BothwellThree months previously her husband Darnley was murdered, and though he was not charged, it was generally accepted that Bothwell had murdered him.
The marriage was deeply unpopular
Jul 24, 1567
Mary forced to abdicateConfederate Lords forced her to abdicate, from prison, in favour of her one-year-old son James. Moray was made regent.
May 2, 1568
Mary escaped prison, headed for EnglandShe escaped her prison, and after her army was defeated, she fled to Workington, and was taken into protective custody at Carlisle Castle.
Jun 1, 1569
First Desmond RebellionFitzmaurice launched his rebellion by attacking Cork, and those native lords who refused to join the rebellion. English forces retaliatedby devastating the lands of Fitzmaurice's allies. Fitzmaurice's forces broke up, as individual lords had to retire to defend their own territories. Gilbert in particular was notorious for the terror tactics he employed, killing civilians at random and setting up corridors of severed heads at the entrance to his camps.
Nov 16, 1569
The Northern RisingCatholic, but mainly political. North had fallen out of favour.
Wanted to marry Mary to Norfolk and force Elizabeth to name her heir. Leicaester leaked plot, and Norfolk told the Earls not to go ahead with it. When called to court they did just that and seized Durham Cathedral. Disbanded when they heard about the size and location of the royal force. Westmorland fled abroad and Northumberland fled to Scotland where he was betrayed by a clan and returned to England, then executed.
Feb 25, 1570
Regnans in ExcelsisA papl bull by Pope Pius V declaring "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England" to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her and excommunicating any that obeyed her orders.
The bull provoked the English government into taking more repressive actions against the Jesuits
Jan 1, 1571
Ridolfi PlotFlorentine banker, could travel without suspicion.
Planned to marry Mary to Norfolk and kill Elizabeth.
Plans discovered, Ridolfi arrested and then tortured until he revealed the plot.
de Spes was expelled from the country and Norfolk was executed.
Never going to work, both thrice married, and Norfolk Protestant
Aug 24, 1572
St. Bartholomew's Day MassacreA group of assassintaions of powerful Huguenots that turned into a violent Catholic mob. It took place 5 days after Henry of Navarre's wedding, meaning many important Huguenots were in the strongly Catholic Paris.The death toll varies between 5,000 and 30,000.
Mosse "the worst of the century's religious massacres"
When Phillip heard of the massacre, he laughed.
Walsingham barely excaped with his life.
Was shunned by the Holy Roman Emperor and Ivan the Terrible.
Jan 1, 1578
Anjou marriage negotiationsOnly one of her suitors to court her in person. There was a 22 age gap, but the got on very well.
A lot of opposition: hatred for his mother, worry about falling under French control, and nervousness about his CAtholicism and the rebellions it would bring about.
She eventually decided the union was unwise and negotiations ended in 1581
Jul 18, 1579
Second Desmond RebellionFitzmaurice returned from exile, with troops and money from the Pope. Irish Catholics no longer need to listen to a heretic Queen. He launched an invasion of Munster. He was killed in a skirmish and John Fitzgerald took over.
By relentless scorched-earth tactics, the English broke the momentum of the rebellion by mid 1581. By May 1581, most of the minor rebels and FitzGerald allies had accepted Elizabeth I's offer of a general pardon. John of Desmond was killed in Cork.
Dec 1, 1581
Death of Saint Edmund CampionCampion was one of the first Jesuit priests to come to England to try and re-catholicise it. He was in England for less than two years. He was charged as a traitor, and was hung, drawn and quartered.
Throckmorton PlotPlot to assassinate Elizabeth and put Mary on the throne. Designed to coincide with an invasion by Duke of Guise.
Led to the creation of the Bond of Association and removal of yet another Spanish ambassador, de Mendoza
Treaty of NonsuchTreaty between England and the Netherlands.
Elizabeth I agreed to supply 6,400 foot soldiers and 1,000 cavalry, together with an annual subsidy of 600,000 florins a year – about a quarter of the annual cost of the revolt.
Elizabeth rejected the title of Governor General of the Provinces offered to her in the treaty. When the head of the English troops in the Netherlands, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, did accept this title, Elizabeth considered it outrageous.
Babington PlotWalsingham lured Mary into breaking to Bond of Association so tha she could be executed.
Letters in code because she was in confinement, every letter was read by Walsingham.
Encouraged by Walsingham's double agents, he waited to act until he had evidence of Mary's involvement.
The conspirators were executed, as was Mary
Treaty of BerwickA peace agreement between Elizabeth and James.
Some believe Elizabeth only entered into the agreement to soften the blow of her next political move - the execution of James' mother, Mary, Queen of Scots. For James, his motivation was the chance of succeeding to the English throne upon Elizabeth's death. A part of the agreement ensured James would receive an annual pension of £4,000 from the English state, which led many to assume Elizabeth already considered James as an heir to her throne.
Defeated Spanish Armada
Death of Dudley, Earl of LeicesterAfter the Armada he spent a few weeks dining with the Queen, a unique favour. On his way to Buxton he died near Oxford on 4 September 1588. Leicester's health had not been good for some time, but his death was unexpectedElizabeth was deeply affected and locked herself in her apartment for a few days until Lord Burghley had the door broken. Elizabeth kept the last letter he sent her in a box by her bed until her death 15 years later. Starkey: he was the "closest thing" she ever had to a lover
Peter Wentoworth sent to the TowerHe presented a petition on the subject of the royal succession, and Elizabeth had him sent to the Tower. He then died there.
Showed Elizabeth's reluctance to name an heir
Tyrone RebellionThe O’Neill rebellion was allowed to grow as Elizabeth had a shortage of both men and money to fight the rebellion. He managed to rally more than 6000 troops. It traversed all four Irish provinces and the size of rebel armies exceeded Elizabeth’s resources.
Capture of CadizEssex and Howard's forces met little resistance. In order to deny the raiders their prize the Spanish set fire to their fleet anchored in the Bay of Cádiz; the English captured, sacked and burned the city and took hostage several of the city's prominent citizens, who were taken back to England to await payment of their ransom.
They were ordered to remain in Cadiz to keep it for England, but Howard forced them to return home
Robert Cecil appointed Principle SecretaryElizabeth had promised not to decide a Principle Secretary until Essex's return from Cadiz, however, when she heard of him ignoring orders, she appointed Cecil.
Essex's forces sent to Irelandforce of 17,000 sent under the command of the Earl of Essex. This would have been large enough to combat the revolt if he had deployed the troops effectively but he proceeded to divide his army, putting half in garrisons and sending the rest into the provinces, without ever forcing Tyrone to submit.
Essex RebellionEssex's supporters met at Essex House, where Elizabeth sent four councillors (three of whom had been close to Essex) to tell them to disperse. Essex then took these men captive, and set out to rally support in London. Little was forthcoming, and on his return he found his prisoners set free and his supporters scattered. He then surrendered.
Essex's executionHe was beheaded, the last person to be so at the Tower of London. This left a gap in the Privy Council which was never filled. From that point on Cecil gained control of court, and Elizabeth received one sided advice
Tyrone's surrenderBy 1603, when Tyrone finally surrendered to Lord Mountjoy, more than 30,000 English troops had been sent to Ireland.
DeathThe Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression. In March 1603, Elizabeth fell sick and remained in a "settled and unremovable melancholy". SHe died before the end of the month.
James replaced her, becoming the first King of Scotland and England