15 Famous Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs (all images are public domain)

  • 3407 BCE

    Menes

    Menes
    King Menes ruled from 3407 to 3346 BC during the Early Dynastic Period and established the First Egyptian Dynasty. He united Upper and Lower Egypt during his reign and founded Memphis in 3100 BC. It was the capital of ancient Egypt the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The ancient Egyptian religion was also established during this time and temples were built to honor their gods.
  • 2668 BCE

    Djoser

    Djoser
    Djoser ruled from 2668 to 2649 BC of the Third Egyptian Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He increased the wealth of Egypt by the mining of Turquoise and other gems and metals. Djoser also had the Step Pyramid built which resides at Saqqara. Saqqara is an ancient Egyptian burial ground.
  • 2589 BCE

    Khufu

    Khufu
    Khufu ruled from 2589 to 2566 BC in the Fourth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. During Khufu's time he built the Great Pyramid of Giza. The pyramid was one of the old seven wonders of the world.
  • 2558 BCE

    Khafre

    Khafre
    Khafre, the son of Khufu, ruled from 2558 to 2532 BC in the Fourth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He built the second largest pyramid at Giza and is credited with building the Great Sphinx. There was rumor that the Sphinx was built in his image. Khafre was also known to be a harsh and cruel monarch.
  • 2283 BCE

    Nitocris

    Nitocris
    Nitocris ruled jointly with her husband from 2283 to 2278 BC in the Sixth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. She was the first female to be given the title of Pharaoh. Nitocris had been described as being the noblest and loveliest of the women during her time. While she ruled she built the smallest pyramid at Giza, created lakes, and built roads that went into Babylon which is located in modern day Iraq.
  • 1479 BCE

    Thutmose III

    Thutmose III
    Thutmose III ruled from 1479 to 1425 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. He became pharaoh at the age of 7 and his aunt acted as regent and then took the title of Pharaoh for herself. A regent is someone who is appointed to lead or manage because the monarch is a minor. Thutmose III was made aa military leader and spent his years in the army and became a great warrior. Thutmose III launched several successful military campaigns that increased the wealth and power of Egypt.
  • 1472 BCE

    Hatshepsut

    Hatshepsut
    Hatshepsut, the aunt and stepmother of Thutmose III, ruled from 1472 to 1457 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. She originally ruled as regent for Thutmose III but then took the title of Pharaoh. She claimed to be the child of Amun, god of fertility and life, and the intended heir. Hatshepsut built the Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut which took 15 years to build and established trade routes. After she died Thustmose III attempted to erase her name from the history of Egypt.
  • 1389 BCE

    Amenhotep III

    Amenhotep III
    Amenhotep III ruled from 1389 to 1351 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. During Amenhotep's reign there was peace and prosperity due to international trade. His main focus was on expanding diplomatic contracts and remodeled and built many buildings. Amenhotep III is credited with building the largest mortuary temple but it was destroyed during a raid.
  • 1351 BCE

    Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV)

    Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV)
    Akhenaten, the son of Amenhotep III, ruled from 1351 to 1337 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. Akhenaten became heir to the throne because his brother Crown Prince Thutmose disappeared. At this time Egypt worshiped almost 2000 gods and 4 years into his reign Akhenaten declared they would replace all with one god, Aten. He also built a new city called Amarna on the banks of the Nile and the entire population was forced to move from Thebes and live in Amarana.
  • 1334 BCE

    Tutankhamun (also known as King Tut)

    Tutankhamun (also known as King Tut)
    Tutankhamun, son of Akhenaten, ruled from 1334 to 1325 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom around the age of nine. During his 4th year he and the royal court moved back to Thebes, modern day Luxor. Tutankhamun's advisers restored the old religion, from worshiping one god to many, and had many buildings built and temple properties restored. Tutankhamun ruled for 10 years until he passed away at the age of 19.
  • 1321 BCE

    Horemheb

    Horemheb
    Horemheb ruled from 1321 to 1292 BC in the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. He was not born royal, instead he worked his way up from being a soldier and to a diplomat during Amenhotep III reign. He was commander-in-chief of Akhenaten's army, who changed the Egyptian religion Polytheism to Monotheism. Horemheb eventually became Tutankhamun's deputy and soon after Tutankhamun's reign he became pharaoh and restored the ancient Egyptian religion that Akhenaten changed.
  • 1290 BCE

    Seti I

    Seti I
    Seti I ruled from 1290 to 1279 BC in the Nineteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. He was a great military commander and waged several wars against Libya, Nubia, and Hittite and he was successful won each. Hittite is located in modern day Turkey. Seti I restored the traditional temples and began the construction of the Great Temple of Abydos and his son finished it.
  • 1279 BCE

    Ramesses II (also spelled as Ramses)

    Ramesses II (also spelled as Ramses)
    Ramses II, son of Seti I, ruled from 1279 to 1213 BC in the Nineteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. Ramses II completed the Great Temple of Abydos for his father during his reign. Like his father he was also a great military commander and waged successful wars. His greatest achievement was capturing the Syrian city from the Hittites that they lost during Akhenaten's reign. Ramses II also built seven temples at Abu Simbel, one was the Rock Temple of Ramses.
  • 1182 BCE

    Ramses III

    Ramses III
    Ramses III ruled from 1182 to 1151 BC in the Twentieth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. He was considered to be the last great pharaoh of Egypt and was the last king of the New Kingdom. There were economic problems during his reign and workmen went on the first strike recorded in history. Ramses III was murdered by one of his two wives in 1151 BC who wanted to put her son, Ramses IV, on the throne.
  • 51 BCE

    Cleopatra VII

    Cleopatra VII
    Cleopatra VII ruled from 51 to 30 BC during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. She was a descendant of Alexander the Great. Cleopatra VII was a co-ruler wither her younger brothers but eventually becomes sole ruler of Egypt. She was able to form military alliances with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony. Cleopatra VII dies in 30 BC due to a snakebite.