Chapter 11 Holocene Europe, all credits to The Human Past, Thames & Hudson

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    BC-Roman unification of Italy

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    BC-Stonehenge: Symbolism and Ceremony

    In c. 2950BC the first stonehenge was build.
    It began with 2m "bleustones" come 220km from that place, from Preceli Hills. 2500BC, the beginning of the big change of stonehenge. The Durrington Walls, an 400m acrossearthwork enclosure and a ditch of c. 6m deep. Predating the stonehenge by a nick. Got timber posts. South of The Hills, Woodhenge, circle of wooden posts. Wood was for the living, stone once for the encestors and the dead. Mostly culted by midwinter(feastings).
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    BC-Spread of bronze metallurgy

    In this timespan the metallurgy of bronze spread across Europe
  • BC-Bronze age Southeast Europe

    The time that the bronze age started in de Aegean region
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    BC-Funnel beaker groups

    4300BC-2800BC, FUnnel beaker groups in Central Europe
    4000BC-2800BC, Funnel beaker groups in Northern Europe
  • BC-The "Iceman"

    South Tirol, Italy, 19 sept. 1991.
    a 45 yo man, "Ötzy" or "Iceman", shot from the back into his left shoulder with a flint arrow (arrow head still in his shoulder) in springtime.
    Lots of unfinished arrows, a bow and other were found.
    A Coat of tanned domestic goat hide.
    A long grass made cape.
    4 tattoos.
    Injury to his right hand. His arm was outstreched and folded while he was rolled over sometime, prob. he wanted to remove the arrow from his back.
  • BC-Farming in southern Scandinavia

    BC-Farming in southern Scandinavia
    Also at this time are the Trichterbecher in Denmark(part of scandinavia)
  • BC-Farming in Ireland and Britain

    BC-Farming in Ireland and Britain
    The first evidence of farming the region of Ireland and Britain was dated c. 4000BC
  • BC-ceramic models of wheeled vehicles

    ceramic wheeles have been found in graves at Budakalasz and Szigetszentmarton in Hungary.
  • BC-Possible secondary products revolution

    Possible adoptation of milking, plowing, animal traction and wool shaving.
    These are called "secundary products revolution"
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    BC-Spread of agriculture

    7000BC to 4500BC, the spreading of agriculture in Europe
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    BC-The Varna Cemetery

    Varna, Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, 1972.
    Burial of over 800 individuals. 211 excavated.
    18 graves carry great material of gold and ingraved other pieces.
    1 holds over 1000 objects, of wich 980 are gold (40-50 yo male)
  • BC-Farming in Brittany, France

    BC-Farming in Brittany, France
    The first farming to be dated in Brittany, North-West France
  • BC-Plow agriculture

    BC-Plow agriculture
    The first plow dated in agriculturural evolution
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    BC-The Bandkeramik Settlements at Langweiler

    Merzbach Valle on the Aldenhovener Plateau, western Germany.
    timber structures up to 70m in length. Strarting with 3 houses and ending with a heigth of 16/17.
    3-5 ha per household.
    3 types of houses, long, medium and small.
    All farmer settlements with cereal cultivation and livstock.
    a 20-50km spand between trade of livestock to breed.
    Perhaps also the same for marriage partners. In the end some ritual buildings just before there fall in c. 4900BC.
  • BC-Early use of metal, wheeled vehicles and plows

    c. 5000 BC, the first use of metal found.
    some plows and wooden wheels were found. For instance in Switzerland and Slovenia.
  • BC- 3th and last flood after the ice age melt-down

    At c. 5000BC, there was a last big flood in europe. This was the couse of rising in sealevel and by so changing the atmosphere to a wetter climate.
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    BC-Bandkeramik farmers

    Timespan of the bandkeramik farmers in central Europe
    5600BC-first bandkeramik culture found in Hungary and Austria
    5300BC-bandkeramik culture in Rhine
    5200BC-bandkeramik culture in Paris
  • BC-farming occurred in Dalmatia

  • BC-farming occurred in macedoina and Thrace.

  • BC-Start of the build of more complex houses and more figurines

    At this time the houses were build more complex with such things as mud furniture.
    Figurines of clay were found a lot at sites like Achilleion in northern Greece with animal and human(male, female and genderless).
  • BC- The Talheim Death Pit

    Talheim, Germany,1987.
    A pit with 34 individuals, 16 child, 18 adult of which at least 7 female. Found by a Bandkeramik settlement. All got a blow to the head with adzes or other blund objects.
    By the form of the adzes used they could be interpreted as not only carpenter tools but also for more aggrassive use. Prob. hunter-gatherers have killed the persons.
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    BC- tells were being build around Europe

    Tells are mud houses with wooden frames that can measure between c. 48m2 to c. 99m2 and prob. larger.
  • BC-First tell settlements of Agrissa, thessally, Greece

    BC-First tell settlements of Agrissa, thessally, Greece
    Thessally
  • BC-First farming settlement, Knossos, island Crete, Greece

    BC-First farming settlement, Knossos, island Crete, Greece
    Also the first settlement on this island, prob. by farmers from Anatolia.
    They must have brought a wide range of domesticated plants and animals with them.
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    BC-Human activity at Star Carr

    Excavator:Grahame Clark
    Activities: cragting of flint, wood and antler, prob. hides.
    Best find: antler used as prob. headwear and may be used in hunting "magic".
  • BC- 2th flood after the last ice age

    It is a while after this flood and rising of the sea-level, and also the warmer climate change, that agriculture accured.