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Era II: Classical Civilizations and Rise of Religious Traditions, 1000 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.)

  • Period: 146 to 336

    The Helenistic Period 336-146 BC

    Period between the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and the establishment of Roman supremacy, in which Greek culture and learning were pre-eminent in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. It is called Hellenistic (Greek, Hellas, "Greece") to distinguish it from the Hellenic culture of classical Greece.
  • Period: 336 to 500

    The Classical Period 500-336 BC

    Classical period of ancient Greek history is fixed between 500 BC, when the Greeks began to come into conflict with the kingdom of Persia, and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under Athenian statesman Pericles; the building of the Parthenon; the creation of the tragedies of Sophocles, etc; and the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato.
  • 403

    Democracy Reinitiated 403 BC

    Democracy Reinitiated 403 BC
    After the war ended, the 'Thirty Tyrants' ruled Athens for a short period of time. Democracy was reinitiated in 403 BC. Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War was somewhat diluted because of their defeat in Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. Later on when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece, Sparta's empire and power was diminished and ultimately destroyed.
  • 414

    The Ionian (or Decelean) War 414 BC

    The Ionian (or Decelean) War 414 BC
    Sparta recommenced war in 414 BC. Now Sparta had a strong army and navy. Athens had lost all its best sailors and finances were wearing. The Athenian empire started to fall apart due to attack after attack. Persia entered the war to support Sparta. The food sources of Sicily and Egypt were under the control of Sparta and Egypt. Athens only support was in form of Crimea. With food supply closed, Athens surrendered on Spartan terms.
  • 421

    Peace of Nicias

    Peace of Nicias
    The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty signed between Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. The negotiations were begun by Pleistoanax, King of Sparta, and the Athenian general Nicias. Both decided to return most of what they had conquered during the war. Temples throughout Greece would be open to worshippers from all cities. Athens could resume collecting tribute and agreed to come to Sparta's aid if the Helots revolted.
  • 430

    The Archidamian War

    The Archidamian War
    Sparta and Athens were land-ruling powers. The war named after Sparta's king Archidamus II, started with Sparta accessing the regions surrounding Athens. Sparta thought that attacking the productive land of Attica, it would pressurize Athens to come forward to start the battle. The Spartan's attack on Athens lasted just forty days, when Athens was hit by an outbreak of Plague.
  • 431

    The Peloponnesian War 431 - 404 BC

    The Peloponnesian War 431 - 404 BC
    The Peloponnesian War took place between the Athenian empire and Peloponnesian league lead by the Spartans. The Peloponnesian league was a coalition of the Thebes, Corinth and Sparta. The main reason for the launch of the war was the Spartan fear of Athens's growing power and prosperity. Athens rule over most of the Mediterranean region along with Greece. The war ended in 404 BC when Athens surrendered.The War remodeled the entire Greek state. After the war, Sparta was the ruling state of Greece
  • 490

    The Battle of Marathon 490 BC

    The Battle of Marathon 490 BC
    Athens was a famous city and the Persians wanted to attack Athens. The battle started around 490 BC. The Persian army consisted of about 20k to 60k men. The Greeks maintained their formation and when the Persians counterattacked, killing 6400 Persians in all. The after effects of the Battle of Marathon were immense for both the Athenians and the Persians. The Athenins had proved their strength in front of Persia who was a strong enemy.The Greeks started believing in their fighting power.
  • 493

    The First Persian War 493 BC

    The First Persian War 493 BC
    After the Ionian revolt ended, Darius decided to expand his empire's territories. In 493 BC the Persians defeated the remains of the Ionian revolt. This was a very good chance for Darius to extend his empire and he did so by acquiring the islands of East Aegean and the Propontis. After the revolt Darius selected his son-in-law Mardonius for resettlement of the cities destroyed in the revolt. This change was shockingly civil compared to the known cruel Persian rulers. Democracy was introduced, ta
  • 500

    Origins of Democracy 500 BC

    Origins of Democracy 500 BC
    Democracy was introduced by an aristocrat, Cleisthenes. Who was from family of the Alcmaeonids in 508 BC, after 2 years of civil war, they used the help of Spartans to secure power.
  • Period: 500 to Oct 22, 750

    The Archaic Period 750-500 BC

    The Archaic period saw advancements in political theory, especially the beginnings of democracy, as well as in culture and art. The knowledge and use of written language which was lost in the Dark Ages was re-established.
  • Period: Oct 22, 600 to Oct 22, 1100

    Mycenaean Age 600-1100 BC

    The Mycenaean Age dates from around 1600 BC to 1100 BC, during the Bronze Age. Mycenae is an archaeological site in Greece from which the name Mycenaean Age is derived. Mycenae site is located in the Peloponnese, Southern Greece.
  • Period: Oct 22, 750 to Oct 22, 1100

    The Dark Ages 750-1100 BC

    The period between the fall of the Mycenean civilizations and the readoption of writing in the eigth or seventh century BC. After the Trojan Wars the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil war, the country was weak and a tribe called the Dorians took over. Some speculate that Dorian invaders from the north with iron weapons laid waste the Mycenaean culture. Others look to internal dissent, uprising and rebellion, or perhaps some combination.
  • Oct 22, 800

    Rule By Oligarchy 800 BC

    Rule By Oligarchy 800 BC
    The majority of Greek states were governed by groups of rich landowners, called aristocrats; this word is derived from 'aristoi', meaning best people. This was a system known as 'oligarchy' the rule by the few.
  • Period: Oct 22, 1400 to

    Minoan Age 2000-1400 BC

    Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. It is divided into three periods: the early Minoan period (c.3000-2200 B.C.), the Middle Minoan period (c.2200-1500 B.C.) and the Late Minoan period (c.1500-1000 B.C.).