Intl history 2

Honors World History Timeline Semester 1

  • "Lucy" - living about 3.5 million years ago

    Lucy was a hominid that was discovered in East Africa. They walked upright.
  • Homo habilis - 2.5 million years

    Homo habilis means "man of skill." Discovered in East Africa. Used these tools to cut meat and crack open bones. Tools made the task of survival easier.
  • Paleolithic Age Begins from 2.5 million to 8000 B.C

    Also known as the Old Stone Age.
  • Homo erectus - 1.6 million years

    Homo erectus means "upright man." Also discovered in East Africa. People used intelligence to develop technology ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs.
  • Neanderthals - 200,000 to 30,000 BC

    Found in Europe and Southwest Asia. They were the first to have ritual burials.
  • Neolithic Age begins 8000 BC to 3000 BC

    Also known as the New Stone Age
  • Cro-Magnon Discovery - 40,000 to 8000 BC

    Cro-magnons emerged. Their skeletal structures are smilar to modern humans.
  • 8000 years - Catal Huyuk

    The village had a population of 5,000 to 6,000 people. It had an advanced way of life. The houses were built rectangularly, well produced crops, and a surplus of resources.
  • 40,000 years - Human Appearance

    The Cro-Magnons acheive the modern human look. Along with the physical appearance, they also advance in agriculture, technology and creative abilities.
  • 10,000 years later - Hunters and Gatherers

    The hunter and gatherer lifestyle was manifested. Men hunted while women gathered.
  • 1,000 years later - Villages prosper

    Villages across the world from India, China, Peru, Mexico and Central America continue to expand and flourish.
  • 7000 BC - Domestication

    The domestication of animals such as sheep and goats have been found in the mountains of Hindu Kush.
  • 5000 BC - Eqyptian Villages

    Farming villages in Egypt emerge
  • 4000 BC - Egyptian ships

    During this period, sails were first used on ships for transportation.
  • 3500 BC - Improved Technology

    People in Sumer began melting copper and tin and to their surprise, it created bronze.
  • Centuries Later - Villages become Cities

    Over the years, populations grew and expanded, thus leading to villages becoming cities.
  • 3200 BC - Indus Farming

    Farming villages in along the Indus River were founded during this time period.
  • 3200 BC - Two Egyptian Kingdoms

    The villages were split up into separate kingdoms. Lower and upper Egypt.
  • About 3100 BC - Egyptian writing

    The creation of hieroglyphic writing was invented in Egypt.
  • 3100 BC - King Menes

    King Menes united upper and lower Egypt and became the first pharoah.
  • 3100 BC to 2649 BC - Egyptian Trade

    Trade was being established throughout Palestine and Nubia.
  • 3000 BC - Sumerians built city-states

    The cities were surrounded and controlled by its own leader. Each city-state was its own country.
  • 3000 BC - Egyptian Unification

    A king by the name of Narmer was present during the unification of the lower and upper Egypt. Evidence of this is proven through a carved piece of slate known as the Narmer Palette.
  • 3000 BC - Minoans

    The Minoans lived on an island of Greece called Crete. They created a sophisticated civilization that had lots of power throughout the Mediterranean world.
  • 2630 BC to 2611 BC - Zoser

    The step pyramids were built during the reign of the Pharaoh Zoser.
  • 2500 BC - The Bronze Age

    The Bronze Age begins. People started to use bronze instead of copper and stone. Cultural diffusion arose all over the Fertile Crescent. New kinds of people with different cultures settled in the area.
  • 2500 BC - Cultural Diffusion

    Through the process of cultural diffusion, new cities began to emerge
  • Around 2500 BC - Mummification & Planned Cities

    During this time period, mummification was introduced in Egyptian culture as well as the beginnings of planned cities in Indus Valley
  • After 2500 BC - Dynasties emerged

    Sumerian city-states became controlled under dynasties. Families ruled for years.
  • 2350 BC - Sargon of Akkad

    Sargon led his army in Sumer and defeated its soldiers. His conquest spread far beyond the Tigris and Euphrates Valley. He created the first empire
  • Around 2134 BC - Smaller kingdoms

    Soon the Egyptian kingdoms began to divide into smaller and smaller kingdoms.
  • 2040 BC - Egyptian Unification II

    The Pharaoh, Mentuhotep II, reuinted Egypt.
  • 2000 BC - First Empire Builders

    Due to constant warfare amongst one another, Sumerian city-states weakened but did not lose their civilization.
  • 2000 BC - Babylonian Empire

    Nomadic warriors invaded Mesopotamia. A new leader named Hammurabi helped Mesopotamia reach its peak.
  • 2000 BC - Mycenaeans

    The Mycenaeans were another group of people that lived in Greece. Their city could withstand almost any attacks. A warrior king ruled the villages and farms surrounding Mycenae; the capital.
  • Around 2000 BC - Chinese Settlements

    Chinese settlers began creating the first civilizations along the Huang He river. These settlements turned into villages and soon into dynasties.
  • 1792 BC to 1750 BC - Hammurabi's Code

    Hammurabi created a code of law for the Babylonian Empire. His code of law unified the diverse groups within the land.
  • 1700 BC to 1027 BC - Shang Dynasty

    The Shang Dynasty was the first family of Chinese rulers to leave actual written records. They built strategic palaces and graves that were uncovered by archaeologists.
  • Around 1640 BC - Hyksos Invasion

    Egypt was invaded by Hyksos from Palestine. Also, horse drawn chariots and the use of iron was introduced into Egypt.
  • 1600 BC to 1100 BC - Mycenaean Kings

    Strong rulers controlled most of Greece's bigger cities such as Tiryns and Athens. These rulers' reign lasted for about 500 years.
  • 1504 BC to 1492 BC - Egyptian Expansion

    Thutmes I expanded Egyptian empire and conquered parts of Nubia, Palestine, and Syria. The spead Egyptian influence throughout the land and caused cultural diffusion to expand.
  • 1473 BC to 1458 BC - Female Pharaoh

    Queen Hatshepsut expanded Egyptian trade and culture during her reign as the first pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 1367 BC to 1350 BC - Monotheism

    During the reign of Akhnaton III and Queen Nefertiti, the belief in one god, Aton, was spread throughout Egypt.
  • 1347 BC to 1339 BC - King Tut

    A boy king by the name of Tutankhamen became pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 1290 BC to 1224 BC - Temples

    During the reign of Ramses II, the building of temples started.
  • 1200 BC - Trojan War

    Mycenaeans fought a decade long battle against the city of Troy in Anatolia. The Greek army destroyed and secretly invaded Troy because a Trojan prince kidnapped the wife of a Greek king.
  • Around 1200 BC - Dorians

    The Mycenaeans soon fell under the rule of the Dorians. They were far less advanced than the Mycenaeans and the Greek culture came to a decline during this age.
  • Around 1027 BC - Zhou Dynasty

    The Zhou Dynasty overthrew the Shang. Due to adopting the culture of the Shang dynasty, the Zhou did not establish anything new in terms of cultural change.
  • 1027 BC to 256 BC - Zhou's rule

    The Zhou empire was peaceful and stable but they weakened and the monarch was killed.
  • 771 BC - Nomads in China

    Nomads invaded China and killed the monarch of the Zhou Dynasty. A few members survived and set up a new capital at Luoyang.
  • 770 BC to 712 BC - More Warfare

    More Egyptian conquerers ruled Egypt, such as the Nubians.
  • 750 BC - Greek City-States

    A polis of city-state was created in Greece. There were up to 10,000 residents in each city-state and they controlled between 50 to 500 square miles of territory.
  • 725 BC - Spartan Domination

    Sparta conquers the neighboring of Messenian and turn them into helots; peasants forced to stay on the land they work on.
  • 650 BC - Messenian Revolt

    The helots were tired of being used as slaves so they decided to rebel against the Spartan control. The Spartans put the helots down but almost lost. This made Sparta decide to become an all powerful military city-state.
  • 621 BC - Democracy

    A nobleman by the name of Darco took power and began to develop a legal system that placed all people, wealthy or poor, under equal law.
  • 600 BC to 371 BC - Spartan Life

    After the revolt of the helots, Spartans decided to turn into a strong city-state. Their values consisted of duty, strength, and discipline.
  • 594 BC - Solon

    Another ruler name Solon outlawed slavery and organized four social classes for the people of Athens. However, anyone could join office and participate in public meetings.
  • 551 BC - Confucius

    China's most influential scholar, Confucius, was born during the end of the reign of the Zhou Dynasty. He studied and taught history, music and the basics of morality.
  • 500 BC - Cleisthenes

    This ruler introduced a new social class. He broke up the power of the nobles and organized people into ten groups based on their financial status and environmental status. He also increased power in assemblies and allowed free debate and passage.
  • 546 BC - Battle of Marathon

    A war struck between Greece and the Persian Empire. The war started in Ionia, where most of the Persians dominated. Ionian Greeks soon revolted and with the help of the Athenian Navy, they were determined to thwart the Persians. Darius the Great crused the rebels and swore revenge on Athens.
  • 490 BC - Persian's Revenge

    A Persian militia carried 25,000 soldiers across the Aegean Sea and fought against a fleet of 10,000 Athenian soldiers. The Persians lost more than 6,000 men and the Athenians lost fewer than 200.
  • 480 BC - Xerxes' Revenge

    The son of Darius the Great, Xerxes, assembled an army of Persian men to invade Athens. Some city-states joined Athens while others thought it was wise to not get involved. When the Persians arrived on Thermopylae, there were 300 Spartans and 1700 Athenians. The Greeks stopped them for three days until a traitor informed the Persians about a secret route. The Spartans held them off while the Greeks retreated and all of them died.
  • 479 BC - Another Persian Defeat

    Xerxes faced another defeat in the Battle of Plataea. After this victory for the Greeks, the Delian League was created.
  • 461 BC to 429 BC - Pericles' Plan

    During this time period, the ruler Pericles had a plan to advance Athens. His goals were to strengthen Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire and glorify Athens,
  • 450 BC - Written laws

    The Plebians force the Patricians to have written laws. The laws were up for display in the town square. Patrician judges were not able to input their opinions.
  • 431 BC - Athens v Sparta

    Tension grew between Athens and Sparta. Athens focused on beautifying its city-state. Sparta saw this as a cover for Athens trying to become a dominant city-state in Greece.
  • 421 BC - Peloponessian Truce

    A truce was finally brought in and both Sparta and Athens accepted. After Athens experienced a plague that wiped a majority of the city, the two sides realized that they have had enough.
  • 415 BC - Broken Truce

    The peace treaty did not last long enough. Within 6 years, Sparta received another attack after Athens sent a fleet of soldiers carrying more than 20,000 soldiers. They planned to destroy Sparta's richest city, Syracuse.
  • 413 BC - Spartan Victory

    Three years later, Sparta won against Athens.
  • 399 BC - Socrates

    An age of philosophy swept throughout Greece. A man by the name of Socrates, questioned the aspects of life, creation of the universe and morality. He was put to death for "corrupting the youth of Athens."
  • 370 BC - Plato

    A student of Socrates, Plato, recorded conversations he had with his teacher and began questioning things. His most famous work is "The Republic", which talks about the idealogical form of government and society.
  • 359 BC - Phillip's Army

    Phillip II was a ruler of Macedonia and a ruthless politician. He trained peasants into a professional army. After this conquest, he was on to his next, invading Greece.
  • 343 BC - Aristotle

    Another philosopher by the name of Aristotle, questioned human belief, laws of nature, and knowledge. He was also known as a scientist, and some of his methods are used in modern science. He was also the teacher of one of the greatest leaders in all of history; Alexander the Great.
  • 338 BC - March to Greece

    Phillip II gathered his men and marched towards Athens. Demosthenes urged the city-states to unite and fight together but neither one of them could agree on an approach. It was already too late, the Macedonians defeated the Greeks. The city-states remained to be their own government though.
  • 336 BC - Phillip's death

    Phillip II planned on invading Persia, but he was assassinated on his daughter's wedding and his son; Alexander the Great was next in line to the throne.
  • 334 BC - Invading Persia

    Alexander the Great decided to avenge his father by invading Persia. He marched 35,000 soldiers across Hellespnt and into Anatolia. He crushed the Persian army but King Darius III fled out of fear.
  • 332 BC - Conquering Persia/Liberating Egypt

    After the terrifying retreat, Darius III wanted to negotiate a treaty but Alexander the Great rejected his offer. Alexander the Great then marched his men into Egypt and was welcomed there as a liberator by the Egyptians. They even named a city after him.
  • 326 BC - Alexander in India

    Alexander marched towards Indus Valley and crushed the Indian army. He wanted to keep moving but his soldiers were begging him to stop, after 11 years of fighting, Alexander was bitterly disappointed and turned back to go home.
  • 323 BC - Babylon

    Alexander reached Babylon and announced his plan to unify the empire. He wanted to construct new roads and ways of transport and conquer Arabia. To his dismay, he became ill of a fever and died a couple days later at the age of 32.
  • 150 BC - Hellensitic Decline

    After the death of Alexander the Great, he left a legacy. His legacy was the Hellenstic culture. Trade became more advanced. Traditions and customs existed in the city of Alexandria from Egypt and the Aegean Sea. Science flourished, astronomers found the actualy size of the Sun. Mathematics became more advanced. But all of that soon came to a decline and the city of Rome was created.
  • 312 BC - Constantine Reign

    During Constantine's reign as emperor, order is restored. He continues the Diocletian's policies of state control over societry and turns the empire to Christianity and builds a new capital; Constantinople.
  • 305 BC - Diocletian Resigns

    Diocletian reigns from the throne along with his vice ruler. This jump starts a civil war.
  • 300 BC - Roman Culture and Government

    In the Roman culture, the male figure was the most important priority. The fathers or sons had all of the power over the family. Women were not allowed to do anything without permission from her husband or father. But they could however inherit property if they were on a higher social class. The Romans adopted many of the Greek mythological beliefs. They did not limit their beliefs to only a few gods.
  • 284 BC - Diocletian Power

    Diocletian takes power of the empire and turns it into an absolute monarchy. He placed himself above everyone in the empire.