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The History of World Civilization 1

  • 150

    The Beginning of Settled Agriculture,8,000 to 6,500 BC

    The Beginning of Settled Agriculture,8,000 to 6,500 BC
    "Agricultural Revolution," the development of settled societies took several millennia after the first discovery of agriculture. Moreover, this process occurred at different times in different parts c. 10,000 BC: Beginnings of Settled Agriculture
    ◦10,000 BC: First agricultural villages
    ◦10,000 BC: Invention of the bow and arrow
    ◦10,000 BC: Dogs and reindeer are domesticated
    ◦10,000 BC: Beginnings of settled agriculture
    ◦10,000 BC: Earliest pottery (Japan)
  • 160

    The Rigveda - the oldest texts in any Indo-European language. 1700–1100 BC

    The Rigveda - the oldest texts in any Indo-European language. 1700–1100 BC
    The Rigveda - ancient sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers, at religious functions and other occasions, putting these among the world's oldest religious texts in continued use. The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, 1700–1100 BC
  • 170

    Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha “the Enlightened One” (c. 563-483 BCE),

    Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha “the Enlightened One” (c. 563-483 BCE),
    He was born in the sixth century B.C. in Indian subcontinent what is now modern Nepal. For six years, Siddhartha submitted himself to rigorous ascetic practices, studying and following different methods of meditation with various religious teachers. He mediatated for 49 days and attained enlightenment at the age of thirty-five, thus earning the title Buddha, or "Enlightened One". For the remainder of his eighty years, the Buddha preached the Dharma in an effort to help people reach enlightenment
  • 213

    The Burning of the Books, 213BC

    213 BC, all Confucian books were burned save one copy of each which was kept in the Chinese State Library. Destroying literature and persecuting Confucians was an extension of the original plans to consolidate the Qin dynasty composed by Shi Huang (246-210 BC).Confucianism was one of the victims of Li Si's book burning. It was perhaps considered threatening to imperial leaders because it encouraged deep thought in politics and philosophy regarding economic and social changes.
  • 221

    Qin dynasty: 221-207 BC

    Qin dynasty: 221-207 BC
    The Qin emperors were the first to form a united empire within China. To establish this empire, the Qin had to confront both the problem of warfare among the Chinese states and between the urban Chinese and the nomadic peoples at the periphery. The Qin dynasty was succeeded by the Han dynasty that took a very different approach to addressing these difficulties.The Qin tomb near present-day Xi’an, the burial place of Shihuangdi with an army of more than 6,000 life-size terra-cotta soldier
  • 221

    Construction of the Great Wall, BC

    Construction of the Great Wall, BC
    Back to "Qin Dynasty" Chronology The Great Wall's construction was begun in 221 BC under the emperor Meng T'ien of the Qin Dynasty. Continual invasion and wars from the barbarians to the north drove the emperor to order its construction to protect the newly unified China.After Meng T'ien's original construction, the wall was far from completed. Other walls were added to and encompassed within The Great Wall. The last major work on the wall was completed during the Ming Dynasty around AD 1500.
  • 250

    Altamira Cave Paintings, 16.000 bc

    Altamira Cave Paintings, 16.000 bc
    cave paintings in Northern Spain which are presumed to have been painted by the Magdalenian people between 16,000-9,000 BC. Spanish archeologist Don Marcelino first discovered the caves at Altamira with their unique showcase of cave paintings. The paintings are located in the deep recesses of caves in the mountains of Northern Spain, far out of the reach of the destructive forces of wind and water. Thus these paintings have undergone little change from when they were first painted 11,000-19,000
  • 270

    The Zhou Dynasty, 1027-777 BC

    The Zhou Dynasty, 1027-777 BC
    The first dynasty to unite most of China under a single government was the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty is divided into two parts, the Western Zhou and the Eastern Zhou. The Eastern Zhou period is thought of as the 'shaping period' of Chinese culture. When the western Zhou started is uncertain but traditionally 1122 BC and 1027 BC are the dates given to us. The Zhou were a semi-nomadic clan from the north western fringe of the Chinese world. They replaced the Shang Dynasty.
  • 272

    Constantine (272-337) the Great and Christianity

    Constantine (272-337) the Great and Christianity
    During the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great, Christianity became the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Constantine, also known as Constantine I, had a significant religious experience following his victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Though Constantine had been exposed to Christianity by his mother, Helena. In 313, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan legalizing Christian worship.
  • 312

    The Battle of the Milvian Bridge

    The Battle of the Milvian Bridge
    The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle.
  • 340

    Sant Patrick

    Sant Patrick
    He embraces Christianity around 400. He lived from 340 to 440, and was active as a missionary in Ireland during the second half of the 5th century. He was captured by Irish slave raiders, escaped but returned later to convert the Irish.
  • 400

    River Valley Empires3200 BC - AD 400

    While the cities of a particular region may have begun as self-governing political units, over time these city-states were brought together into a single political unit, usually by force. These larger
    ◦c. 3200 BC: Sumerian Civilization
    ◦c. 2900 BC: Egypt
    ◦c. 2500 BC: Harappan Culture
    ◦c. 1700 BC: Shang China
    ◦c. 1400 BC: Expansion and Contraction of Mesopotamian Empires
    ◦c. 1300: Aryan migration into the Indus Valley
    ◦2205 BC: Early Chinese Civilization
    ◦2000 BC: Meso-American Civilization
  • 400

    Cosmopolitan Empires550 BC - AD 1400

    While empires may have originated along rivers, once the necessary military technology and the proper economic foundations were developed, empires soon expanded beyond their river valley homes. Eventually, many of the these empire would develop extensive trade and cultural contacts.
    •550-323 BC: Persian Empire
    •146 BC-AD1453: Rome and Byzantium
    •AD 25--220: Later Han dynasty
    •581-618: Sui Dynasty
    •618-907: Tang Dynasty
    •960-1126: Northern Song Dynasty
    •1127-1279: Southern Song Dynasty
  • 475

    Confucius' The Analects, 475 BC

    Confucius' The Analects, 475 BC
    The Analects, or Lunyu, also known as the Analects of Confucius, are considered a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held. Written during the Spring and Autumn Period through the Warring States Period (ca. 475 BC - 221 BC), the Analects is the representative work of Confucianism and continues till today.
  • 523

    The Shang Dynasty, BC 1523-1027

    The Shang Dynasty, BC 1523-1027
    1523-1027 BC,Shang civilization was a series of towns united under the Shang king.The center of the Shang domain was found in the eastern and northeastern regions of Henan. The king's residence was in the center of the city. It was built on a north-south axis. All buildings in the city were rectangular and were made of mud with wooden beams. In addition to the king, the nobility lived within the city. They also lived in houses of mud.The Shang held their royal ancestors in high regard.
  • 541

    The Great Plague devastates Constantinople

    541-543 In AD 542 a plague struck Constantinople that was so overwhelming, it changed the face of history forever. This plague occurred in the 15th year of the emperor Justinian's reign. At the height of the contagion's rampage, the daily death toll may have reached 10,000 or more. Justinian himself, was stricken with this disease. The final death count is not clearly known, but some historians feel that it may have reached into the upper hundreds of thousands.
  • Oct 20, 700

    Primary Urban Society,3,500 BC to AD 700

    "Primary Urbanization" refers to the first development of cities in a particular region. Generally speaking, historians believe that urban society was developed independently in at least six regions: Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, the Yangtze River Valley, Mesoamerica and the Andean Altiplano. From these original centers it diffused to the rest of the world.
    ◦3,100 - 2,700 BC: Old Kingdom Egypt
    ◦2,600 - 2,500 BC: Harappan Civilization at its height
    ◦1523 - 1027 BC: Xia dynasty
  • Oct 10, 732

    The Battle of Tours

    The Battle of Tours
    A Moslem army, in a crusading search for land and the end of Christianity, after the conquest of Syria, Egypt, and North Africa, began to invade Western Europe under the leadership of Abd-er Rahman, governor of Spain. Abd-er Rahman led an infantry of 60,000 to 400,000 soldiers across the Western Pyrenees and toward the Loire River, but they were met just outside the city of Tours by Charles Martel, known as the Hammer, and the Frankish Army. In either case, the battle ended when the French ca
  • Dec 10, 742

    Charlemagne 742-814 Christian Emperor of the Franks

    Charlemagne 742-814 Christian Emperor of the Franks
    Charlemagne was the king of the Franks, a Germanic people that inhabited Gaul.Charlemagne also was a devout Christian. He supported the Church, giving liberally at his own expense as well as that of the state to support the Church and fighting to protect the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church's property in Italy.
  • Oct 21, 751

    Battle of Talas River

    Battle of Talas River
    Islam's widespread emergence coupled with China's over-expansion, led to the Battle at Talas River, the only battle between Arab Muslim forces and the army of the Chinese Empire. The Chinese troops were led by Kao Hsien-chih, who had been successful in battles in Gilgit and in the Farghana region. But his success did not carry over, as the Muslim armies were victorious. The Muslims chose not to pursue the Chinese into central Asia. While the battle in itself was of minor importance, its ramific
  • Oct 21, 776

    The Olympic Games,776 BC

    The Olympic Games,776 BC
    According to the earliest records, the first Olympic games were held in 776 BC. The Olympic games originate in athletic contests to honor of Zeus and other deities at Olympia.The ancient Greek Olympics were held every four years during the full moon of midsummer. That date was chosen so the games could last into the night. The time between games was called an Olympiad, and each Olympiad was named for an athletic victor at the previous contests.
  • Oct 21, 1000

    Song's Printing

    printing was influenced by the Korean printing with moveable type, whereas the in the old way they had to carve out hundreds of characters on a single piece of wood before a single page could be printed. In this new more advanced way, also called "the Song way," there were page molds and individual Chinese characters were cast in metal or porcelain. These pages were reusable and the pieces of type were moveable. It was obviously much quicker than what they had in the past.
  • Sep 26, 1047

    The last great Viking king

    Harald the Hard Ruler, "Thunderbolt of the North", won back his father's crown as king of Norway. He had married a Russian princess and fought for the Byzantines in Asia Minor, Jerusalem, and the Caucasus Mountains.
  • Dec 10, 1054

    The East–West Schism of 1054

    Great Schism,[1] formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
  • Dec 11, 1085

    Plenary Indulgences

    Plenary Indulgences
    Plenary indulgence is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment[1] due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the Catholic Church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. The earliest record of a plenary indulgence was Pope Urban II's declaration at the Council of Clermont (1095) that he remitted all penance incurred by crusaders who had confessed their sins in the Sacrament of Penance, considering participation in the crusade.
  • Oct 21, 1088

    Su Song's Clock

    Su Song's Clock
    Su Song, a Chinese expert in the calculation of calendars, built an advanced astronomical clock in 1088. The clock was a precise apparatus used for astronomical observations and time keeping during the reign of Zhezong (Bulliet 333). Recent interests in the clock led to the building of a replica for the National Museum of Natural Science in China. This reconstruction revealed the intricacies of the clock and proved the greatness of the intellectual capacities of its creator.
  • Dec 11, 1095

    First Crusade 1095–1099

    First Crusade 1095–1099
    Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in 1095 sent ambassadors to plead for military help from western Europeans at the Council of Piacenza. His empire was threatened by the Seljuk Turks. Later that year, at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called all Christians to join a war against the Turks, promising those who died in the endeavour would receive immediate remission of their sins.The Jews and Muslims fought together to defend Jerusalem against the Franks. In 1099 the crucades took over the city.
  • Dec 10, 1185

    Feudal Japan (1185–1868)

    Feudal Japan (1185–1868)
    The "feudal" period of Japanese history, dominated by the powerful regional families (daimyō) and the military rule of warlords (shōgun), stretched from 1185 to 1868. The emperor remained but was mostly kept to a de jure figurehead ruling position, and the power of merchants was weak. This time is usually divided into periods following the reigning family of the shōgun
  • Dec 11, 1188

    Topographia Hibernica

    Topographia Hibernica - topography of Ireland) is an account of the landscape and people of Ireland written by Gerald of Wales around 1188, soon after the Norman invasion of Ireland. It was the longest and most influential work on Ireland circulating in the Middle Ages and its direct influence endured into the Early Modern period.The work is divided into three parts. The first primarily deals with the landscape, flora and fauna of the country, the second with the miracles of Ireland people.
  • Oct 21, 1206

    Genghis Khan

    Genghis Khan
    Temujin's military strategies were unmatched and unbeatable. His tactics were an ever-changing form of attack. His armies wore a light form of armor that consisted of a quilted jacket or waterproof leather jacket. Underneath they wore a silk shirt, so if wounded in battle the arrow would not penetrate so deep. The silk cloth would wrap around the arrow, reducing the chance of an infection, and lessening the magnitude of the wound. Genghis Khan, being a very smart man, organized his armies into s
  • Oct 21, 1214

    Beijing is Captured by the Mongols

    The year 1211 marked the beginning of the war between the Mongols and the Chin Dynasty. The Chin Dynasty was very powerful and was able to hold Genghis Khan (Temujin) and his Mongol army at bay for the first two years of the war. Throughout this time however, Temujin continued to build his forces and by 1213 had an army so powerful that they conquered all of the Chin territory up to China's Great Wall. From this strategic location, Temujin made the decision to split up his forces into three sma
  • Sep 26, 1215

    By 1215 Chingis Khan conquered northern China

    He united the tribes of the steppe and also conquered northern China, capturing Peking
  • Oct 21, 1215

    Kublai Khan Rules China

    Kublai Khan Rules China
    Kublai Khan (1215-1294) was a Mongolian leader who made an impact on China, not only through conquest, but also by ruling successfully. Many of the rulers before him were brutally land-hungry and apathetic to the conquered people; however, Kublai challenged the stereotypes of Mongolian rulers by investing in his newly acquired people and providing the foundations of a grand empire.
  • Sep 26, 1222

    Chingis Khan turned his armies agains the West

    He conquered the tribes of Turkestan and the Khorezmian Empire, the great Muslim power of Central Asia and send an army around the Caspian Sea into Russia.
  • Sep 26, 1226

    Destroying the kingdom of Tibet

    Chingis Khan turned again to the East, subduing and destroying the kingdom of Tibet before he died in 1227
  • Sep 26, 1227

    The death of Chingis Khan

  • Sep 26, 1237

    European fears intensified

    the principal Mongol armies under Batu Khan systematically destroyed one Russian city after another
  • Apr 26, 1241

    Mongol army in Europe

    They destroyed a combined force of Polish and German armies, while another defeated the Hungarian army and threatened Austria.
  • Sep 26, 1245

    Pope Innocent 4 sent a mission to the Mongols

    He sent two Franciscan monks - one of whom was John of Plano Carpini - with two letters addressed to the Emperor of the Tartars. In May, the barefoot sixty-five-year-old Friar John reached Batu's camp on the Volga River.
  • Oct 21, 1275

    Marco Polo Travels in China

    Marco Polo Travels in China
    1275-1292, His father, Nicolo, and his uncle, Maffeo, were merchants who began their first eastern journey in 1260. They visited Constantinople and made their way to the domain of the Great Kublai Khan, ruler of China. The Emperor became interested in stories of the native land of the merchants; thus, he sent the Polos back to the Pope as his ambassadors with messages of peace and interest in converting areas of China to Christianity.
  • Oct 21, 1325

    The Travels of ibn Battatu

    The Travels of ibn Battatu
    1325-1354,Sheikh Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Lawati, more commonly called ibn Battuta, was a Moroccan traveler born in Tangier. He was also a Muslim, and a strong believer in the Qu’ran (Koran). He was even thought to have had the entire book memorized by the time he was 12 years old. On June 13, 1325 at the age of 21, he left Tangier to make his first of many hijras, a journey from his place of birth to Mecca.
  • Oct 23, 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death, the most severe epidemic in human history, ravaged Europe from 1347-1351. This plague killed entire families at a time and destroyed at least 1,000 villages. Greatly contributing to the Crisis of the Fourteenth Century, the Black Death had many effects beyond its immediate symptoms. Not only did the Black Death take a devastating toll on human life, but it also played a major role in shaping European life in the years following
  • Oct 23, 1453

    The Fall of Constantinople

    The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily fortified cities in the world, took place in 1453. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led the assault. The city was defended by, at most, 10,000 men. The Turks had between 100,000 and 150,000 men on their side. The siege lasted for fifty days. The Turks employed various important war tactics in taking over the city. They used huge cannon to destroy the walls, warships were used to the cut the
  • Oct 23, 1492

    Christopher ColumbusDiscovers America

    Christopher ColumbusDiscovers America
    Columbus led his three ships - the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria - out of the Spanish port of Palos on August 3, 1492. His objective was to sail west until he reached Asia (the Indies) where the riches of gold, pearls and spice awaited. By October 10 the crew's apprehension had increased to the point of near mutiny. Columbus headed off disaster by promising his crew that if land was not sighted in two days, they would return home. The next day land was discovered.
  • Sep 26, 1498

    Vasco da Gama arrives off theMalabar coast

    Portuguese fl eet led by Vasco da Gama arrives off the
    Malabar coast
  • Oct 23, 1498

    Vasco da Gama Arrives in India

    Vasco da Gama Arrives in India
    Vasco da Gama is famous for his completion of the first all water trade route between Europe and India. Da Gama's father, Estavao, had originally been chosen by King Joao II to make this historic voyage, but he died before he could complete the mission. It is also said that the opportunity was then given to da Gama's brother, Paulo, who turned it down. The trip needed to be made, and as a last choice, King Emmanuel looked to da Gama to complete the mission.
  • Oct 23, 1539

    Coronado Explores the Southwestern United States

    Spanish interest in exploring the northern territory was inspired by a man named Friar Marcos in 1539. He had just returned from a journey into what is now the American Southwest. Upon his return he brought stories of seven magnificent cities of the Native Americans. He described the main city of Cibola as “the best and largest of all those that have been discovered (Hafen 8).” His stories of gold and large, advanced cities sparked more Spanish interest in the American West.
  • Dec 10, 1540

    Tanegashima was introduced to Japan in the 1540s

    Tanegashima was introduced to Japan in the 1540s
    Tanegashima a form of matchlock which was introduced to Japan in the 1540s through Portuguese trade, enabling warlords to raise effective armies from masses of peasants. Their ease of use and deadly effectiveness was perceived by many samurai as a dishonorable affront to tradition. . By the end of the 16th century, there were more firearms in Japan than in any European nation.
  • Van Verre established

    Dutch Compagnie Van Verre established to take the
    ocean route to the East
  • EIC established

    English East India Company (EIC)
  • Negotiation of English Company

    English Company negotiates fi rst trade agreement with
    the Mughal Empire
  • Fort St George at Madras

    Fort St George at Madras established by the English
  • The EIC moves headquarters

    The EIC moves headquarters to East India House at
    Leadenhall Street
  • The EIC becomes a permanent joint stock corporation

  • Bombay transferred to the EIC

    Bombay transferred to the EIC by King Charles II
  • Josiah Child fi rst elected as EIC governor (chairman)

  • Company establishes new base in Bengal at Calcutta

  • Company corruption

    First parliamentary investigation into Company corruption
  • Easter Island

    Easter Island
    The name "Easter Island" was given by the island's first recorded European visitor, the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who encountered it on Easter Sunday 1722, while searching for Davis or David's island.Easter Island (Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui, Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian triangle. A special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888, Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues,
  • bans import of opium

    Qing Empire bans import of opium except for medicinal
  • Zong Massacre

    Zong Massacre
    British slave ship Zong leaves Liverpool on 6 September 1781. By end of November malnutrition and disease had killed 7 of crew and 60 enslaved Africans. Many of surviving slaves were sick as well. Captain threw remaining slaves overboard knowing insurance claim would be more profitable, therefore 122 slaves were killed
  • 30,000 to 25,000 BC. Venus of Willendorf

    30,000 to 25,000 BC. Venus of Willendorf
    The 'Venus of Willendorf'.female figurine that was found in 1908 by an archeologist named Joseph Szombathy in a Aurignacian loess deposit near the town of Willendorf in Austria. It is now in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. The statue was carved from oolitic limestone and was colored with red orche. It measures 110 mm in height and is dated 30,000 and 25,000 BC
    The society may have thus been more matriarchal rather than patriarchal
  • Terra Cotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty

    Terra Cotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty
    The terra cotta warriors were accidentally discovered by Chinese peasants while digging a well.The first site was excavated in 1974. Although much of the site had been looted soon after it was built, archaeologists discovered 6,000 pottery figures. This oblong shaped site is 689 feet long, 197 feet wide. The trenches that contain the soldiers are 14.8 to 21.3 feet deep. The actual bodies of the soldiers were formed out of terra cotta clay. Each soldier was baked in a kiln.
  • Period: to

    History 131

    A survey and examination of major social, political, economic, and cultural developments in Middle Eastern, European, Asian, African, and Mesoamerican civilizations to 1700.
  • Ahmad ibn Fadlan

    The Muslim diplomat and traveller, Ibn Fadlan descripes people he called the Rūs or Rūsiyyah. Most scholars identify them with the Rus' or Varangians, which would make Ibn Fadlan's account one of the earliest portrayals of Vikings.The Rūs appear as traders who set up shop on the river banks nearby the Bolğar camp. They are described as having bodies tall as (date) palm-trees, with blond hair and ruddy skin.
  • Vikings Raid European

    Vikings Raid European
    800-900, The Vikings or Norsemen consisted of Danes, Swedes or Norwegians that lived along the coasts of Scandinavia. They mainly survived by farming, fishing and piracy.The earliest documented raids by the Vikings began in 793 at Lindisfarne, England. Historians distinguish three phases to the raids. The first phase of attacks was from 790-840. The Vikings used shallow draught longships which were ideally suited for surprise raids on coastal locations that struck terror into their victims. T
  • The Viking Rus

    The Viking Rus
    The Rus Vikings were the Swedish raiders and traders who settled deep into modern Estonia, Ukraine and Russia. The superior seamanship of the Swedish settlers allowed their ships to navigate the Volga river to travel deep within the lands of the Central and Eastern European peoples. The Rus Viking legend tells us that the Finn and Slavic peoples initially resisted the Rus Viking incursions. The Finns and the Slav's decided that the Rus Vikings could prove useful in maintaining order of land.
  • The Torah (600 BCE - 400 BCE)

    The Torah (600 BCE - 400 BCE)
    The Torah is the name given by Jews to the first five books of the bible—Genesis. "). The Oral Torah consists of the traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation and now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.] Modern biblical scholars have concluded that the written books were a product of the Babylonian exilic period (c.600 BCE) and that it was completed by the Persian period (c.400 BCE).
  • Baghdad

    Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center for the Islamic World. garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning". Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 1,200,000 people
  • The Mamluk Slave system

    The Mamluk Slave system
    The Mamluk Slave system operated in several Islamic countries (primarily associated with Egypt) from the 9th until the 19th centuries. Mamluks were captured or purchased while young and raised in strict military discipline. They received extensive military and religious training and were not permitted to have any social or political ties to the ourtside world. The status of being a Mamluk slave was highly valued in society with some free-born people arranging to get themselves sold into slavery.
  • Collapse of the Central Government in China

    Collapse of the Central Government in China
    907-960, The collapse of the central government from 907- 960 is the period of time between the T'ang and Sung dynasties.(1) During this period five dynasties developed in northern China and ten kingdoms in southern China, each of which struggled for the power of China (2). There was no unified imperial government.After the failed attempts to unify China, ten kingdoms in the southern China arose. These kingdoms were: Wu, Wu Yeuh, Nan (southern) T'ang,