An outline of the history of Linguistics

  • 4000 BCE

    Linguistics started with writing. 4000 BP

    Linguistics started with writing. 4000 BP
    Cuneiform writing represents the earliest linguistic texts mainly of the Sumerian and Akkadian languages.
  • 2000 BCE

    Sumerian and Akkadian. 2000-1001 BC

    Sumerian and Akkadian. 2000-1001 BC
    The grammatical tradition of Sumerian was considered an isolated language since it is not related to any other type of language. That means Sumerian doesn't have roots from the language tree. -It was the language of religion and legality. -All information about Sumerian was written in clays for the teaching to foreigners. -In the oral practice people prefer Akkadian over Sumerian. Then, Sumerian was translated in Akkadian but in this case a whole text.
  • 1000 BCE

    Hindu Tradition 1000 BC - 1 BC

    Hindu Tradition 1000 BC - 1 BC
    Sanskrit had an important and precious language for the prayers and rituals. For this reason Hindu Tradition stablished grammatical rules for the correct reading and speaking.
  • 500 BCE

    Panini the Grammarian. 500 BC

    Panini the Grammarian. 500 BC
    Panini studied about pronunciation the words alones as well as integrated and its respective formation.
  • 500 BCE

    Greek Linguistics. 500 BC

    Greek Linguistics. 500 BC
    Language: Greek.
    This linguistic tradition is based in studies about Sanskrit.
    Speaking is different to writing, they needed explain Homer's epics because this only was oral (arguing).
    Philosophical speculation: They asked themselves what's first Language or thinking, origin and relationship of words and meaning and so on.
  • 500 BCE

    Naturalist and conventionalist theory. 500 BC

    Naturalist and conventionalist theory. 500 BC
    Platon supports to the Naturalist because he believed that words had natural connection with things or shape. On the other hand, Aristotle believed was convention (arbitrary) it doesn't exist a specific relationship with this.
  • 100 BCE

    Téchne grammatike. 100 BC

    Téchne grammatike. 100 BC
    Short description from Greek by Dionysius Thrax.
    It contains the next subjects: Phonetics and morphology (including parts-of-speech) After, Apolonio Dyscolus studied about syntax.
  • 27 BCE

    Roman Tradition 116–27 BC

    Roman Tradition 116–27 BC
    They continued with Greek linguistics studies.
    Language: Latin.
    Object of study focus in morphology, particularly parts-of-speech and the forms of nouns and verbs.
    Syntax wasn't necessary.
    Outstanding representatives: Varro Latin grammar.
    Donatus (fourth century AD) and Priscan (sixth century AD)
  • 700

    Arabic and Hebrew traditions. Seventh century AD

     Arabic and Hebrew traditions. Seventh century AD
    Greatest exponent (Arabic): Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali. He wrote the first treatises on Arabic linguistics and grammar nahw focus in how to read and write Arabic words.
    Saadya ben Joseph al-Fayyu5m45 produced the first grammar and dictionary of Hebrew (Afroasiatic, Israel). After, David Qimhi in his work stablished structure, etymology and identifies differences with other languages studying or commenting some bible's book.
  • 900

    Middle Ages in Europe AD 500–1400

    Middle Ages in Europe AD 500–1400
    Latin was the main language. Also the church were communicate its preaches only in Latin. Currently, Latin is still being taught.
    Second language: Vernacular.
  • 1000

    Latin as foreign language.

    Latin as foreign language.
    An abbot in Britain teaches to children about the use, organization structures and basic principles of Latin grammar.
    Vernacular languages were exposed similar to Latin shape.
  • 1200

    The first grammatical treatise. Twelfth century

    The first grammatical treatise. Twelfth century
    Theory: The notion of the universal nature of grammar.
    Bacon thought the grammar in the languages had the same structure, he defined the variations like incidental and shallow.
    The Icelandic author wrote treatise. It was really important in the phonetic and phonology field. It based in the next studies:
    *Orthographic reform.
    *Description of Icelandic phonology.
    *Differences between phones and phonemes and sound variations.
  • 1500

    European colonialism. Fifteenth century

    European colonialism. Fifteenth century
    The conquest allowed to know languages from other cultures thanks to documents with whole information about that particular grammar.
  • Comparative linguistics. Sixteenth century

    Comparative linguistics. Sixteenth century
    Many authors around the world were able to establish relationships of genetic relatives between similar languages, especially Andreas Jäger argued that the languages spread by waves of migrations into Europe and Asia. As well, William Jones discovered the relatedness of the Indo-European languages.
  • Languages related. Nineteenth century

    Languages related. Nineteenth century
    Comparative method between native and foreign languages.
  • The Danish linguist Rasmus Rask

    The Danish linguist Rasmus Rask
    It gave a coherent order to the entire system of historical linguistics. The principles that establish the connections between languages are as follows:
    *The grammatical evidence.
    *Analysis of the cognates.
    *European grammar is different from colonial grammar.
    *Academic research on the non-Indo-European languages of the Russian Empire.
  • Some Queries

    Some Queries
    1.Anonymous. (n.d.). An outline of the history of linguistics. 2020, octubre 5, de aulasuniminuto Recuperado de https://202060.aulasuniminuto.edu.co/pluginfile.php/882597/mod_resource/content/3/An_outline_of_the_history_of_linguistics.pdf
    2.David Kimhi WIKIPEDIA. Sitio Web: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Kimhi
    3.Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali WIKIPEDIA. Sitio Web: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_al-Aswad_al-Du%27ali