Ancient history

Ancient history

  • Period: 3000 BCE to 2300 BCE

    Sumerian period / Early Dynastic period

    An archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods. It saw the development of writing and the formation of the first cities and states.
  • Period: 2700 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Egypt ( Old Kingdom )

    The Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613-2181 BCE)is also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders'as it includes the great 4th Dynasty.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 1800 BCE

    Akkadian Empire

    The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer. It was centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule.
  • Period: 2050 BCE to 1720 BCE

    Middle Kingdom

    The Middle Kingdom designates a period of ancient Egyptian civilization stretching from approximately 2030 to 1650 B.C. (Dynasty 11 through Dynasty 13).
  • Period: 1800 BCE to 1350 BCE

    Babylonian Empire

    Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia and parts of Syria. A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon. It was a small provincial town during the Akkadian Empire but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city.
  • Period: 1550 BCE to 1069 BCE

    New Kingdom

    The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the sixteenth century BC and the eleventh century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasties of Egypt.
  • Period: 1350 BCE to 612 BCE

    Assyrian Empire

    The Assyrian Empire was a collection of united city-states that existed from 900 B.C.E. to 600 B.C.E., which grew through warfare, aided by new technology such as iron weapons.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 509 BCE


    Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Roman history when the city and its territory were ruled by kings. According to oral accounts, the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding c. 753 BC, with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic c. 509 BC.
  • Period: 750 BCE to 500 BCE

    Archaic period

    Archaic period, in history and archaeology, the earliest phases of a culture; the term is most frequently used by art historians to denote the period of artistic development in Greece.
  • Period: 715 BCE to 31 BCE

    Late period

    The Late Period of Egypt (525-332 BCE) is the era following the Third Intermediate Period (1069-525) and preceding the brief Hellenistic Period (332-323 BCE) when Egypt was ruled by the Argead officials installed by Alexander the Great prior to the rise of the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE).
  • Period: 612 BCE to 539 BCE

    Neo-Babylonian Empire

    The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Second Babylonian Empire and historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia.
  • Period: 509 BCE to 27 BCE


    The Roman Republic was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 323 BCE

    Classical period

    The Classical Period of ancient Greece was a time when the Greeks achieved new heights in art, architecture, theater, and philosophy. Democracy in Athens was refined under the leadership of Pericles.
  • Period: 323 BCE to 31 BCE

    Helenistic period

    The three centuries of Greek history between the death of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. and the rise of Augustus in Rome in 31 B.C.E. are collectively known as the Hellenistic period
  • Period: 110 BCE to 750 BCE

    Dark Age

    Is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 110 BC to the beginning of the Archaic age around
  • Period: 27 BCE to 476


    Was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, ruled by emperors.
  • 31

    Battle of Actium

    Battle of Actium
    The Battle of Actium was a naval battle fought between a maritime fleet led by Octavian and the combined fleets of both Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII Philopator. The battle took place on 2 September 31 BC in the Ionian Sea, near the former Roman colony of Actium, Greece, and was the climax of over a decade of rivalry between Octavian and Antony.
  • 44

    Assassination of Julius Caesar

    Assassination of Julius Caesar
    Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, was assassinated by a group of senators on the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC during a meeting of the Senate at the Curia of Pompey of the Theatre of Pompey in Rome where the senators stabbed Caesar 23 times.
  • 202

    Battle of Zama

    Battle of Zama
    The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal.
  • 432

    Construction of the Parthenon

    Construction of the Parthenon
    Building the Parthenon was a technologically innovative and, of course, extremely difficult task for the ancient Greeks. They managed to extract, transport and lift huge quantities of marble from Penteli, to the rock of the Acropolis, with their technology.
  • 480

    Battle of Thermopiles

    Battle of Thermopiles
    The Battle of Thermopiles was fought between an alliance of Ancient Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, and the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I. It was fought in 480 BC over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
  • 480

    Battle of Salamis

    Battle of Salamis
    The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high point of the second Persian invasion of Greece.
  • 490

    Battle of Maraton

    Battle of Maraton
    The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army inflicted a crushing defeat on the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars.
  • Code of Hammurabi

    Code of Hammurabi
    The Code of Hammurabi is a Babylonian legal text composed c. 1755–1750 BC. It is the longest, best-organised, and best-preserved legal text from the ancient Near East. It is written in the Old Babylonian dialect of Akkadian, purportedly by Hammurabi, sixth king of the First Dynasty of Babylon.
  • Unification of Lower and Upper Egypt by King Narmer

    Unification of Lower and Upper Egypt by King Narmer
    Upper and Lower Egypt became united around 3150 B.C.E. after the Upper Egyptian leader Menes, also known as Narmer, led his military forces to defeat Lower Egypt. Menes became the first king to rule over both Upper and Lower Egypt.