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The Spread of Islam in the 7th Century

  • 610

    Muhammad's First Revelation

    Muhammad's First Revelation
    Reported to take place in Cave Hira when Gabriel approached Muhammad and asked him to read. Not knowing how, Muhammad replied, "I do not know how to read." Gabriel then grabbed and released Muhammad on three occasions before revealing the first three verses from the Quran. Image: https://theislamicinformation.com/blogs/facts-about-cave-hira/
  • 622


    Muhammad completed his hijrah to Medina, or Yathrib as it was known before Muhammad's hijra, to avoid prosecution. The people of Medina welcomed Muhammad with open arms and allowed him to preach Islam there. They became known as the Ansar. Image: https://afosa.org/hijrah-birth-of-prophet-muhammad/
  • 624

    Battle of Badr

    Battle of Badr
    After missing a potential caravan, Muhammad and his men settled in the city of Badr. Muhammad was alerted that the Meccan army was coming. They had just 313 men with only 2 horses and 70 camels, while the Makkans had over 1000 men, 100 horses, and 170 camels. The symbolic end of the battle came when Abu Jahl's head was brought before the Prophet. The Muslim victory strengthened Muhammad's position as his first major victory. Image: https://medium.com/@pathofallah789/battle-of-badr-b9b3b7703291
  • 628

    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

    Muhammad and his companions wanting to go to Makkah for pilgrimage led to the signing of this treaty. The treaty allowed Muhammad and his companions to make pilgrimage and called for peace between the Muslims and the Quraysh for ten years.
  • 630

    Conquest of Makkah

    The treaty was violated when an ally of the Quraysh attacked an ally of the Muslims. This angered Muhammad and he gathered an army to march to Makkah. Muhammad was able to take back Makkah with minimal violence.
  • 632

    Death of Muhammad

    After his final pilgrimage and sermon, Muhammad fell ill. After a few days, he eventually passed away completing his message.
  • 632

    Abu Bakr Named the First Caliph

    Abu Bakr being named successor to Muhamad was a controversial decision that led to the Shia-Sunni Split. As caliph, Abu Bakr unified the Arabian Peninsula and gave it stability. This allowed him to send campaigns against the Sassanid and Byzantine Empires who were threatening Arabia's borders.
  • 634

    Death of Abu Bakr / Umar Becomes Caliph

    After the death of the First Caliph, Abu Bakr, Umar assumes the position as the Second Caliph. Under Umar, the Muslims were able to conquer Damascus, Jerusalem, Persia, and Egypt.
  • 644

    Umar is Assassinated

    Umar was attacked during prayer in the mosque of Muhammad, Masjid an-Nawabi, and passed away three days later.
  • 644

    Uthman is Elected the Third Caliph

    Uthman was elected as Caliph over Ali, and due to his lack of leadership experience, he allowed his army to have autonomy. Uthman was able to optimize trade and expansions continued to happen under his rule.
  • 656

    Uthman is Assassinated

    Uthman's lack of experience began to show. Rebellions in Egypt and other places ousted their governors and sent men to kill Uthman. Because Uthman spread all his power across the empire, he did not have enough protection, and Uthman was assassinated in his home.
  • 656

    Ali Becomes the Fourth Caliph

    Reluctant at first, Ali became the fourth caliph after being convinced from the people of Medina.
  • Period: 656 to 661

    First Fitnah

    The First Fitnah was the first civil war in the Islamic Empire. Disagreements began when Muawiyah and Ali had different opinions on how to seek justice for Uthmans death. It ended after rebels assassinated Ali, and his son, Hasan, succeeded him. He eventually surrendered the caliphate to Muawiyah which ended the First Fitnah.
  • 680

    Death of Muawiyah

    Muawiyah ruled more like an emperor than the previous caliphs and made it clear that he would not follow them in their simplicity. He led the first Muslim engagement on the sea and laid siege on Constantinople, which failed quickly. He appointed his son Yazid as his successor before his death.
  • 684

    Abdullah ibn Zubayr Establishes Rival Caliphate

    Abdullah ibn Zubayr was the leader of a caliphate based in Mecca that rivaled the Umayyads until his death.
  • 685

    Abdul Malik Becomes Fifth Ummayad Caliph

    After the death of Yazid, his son Muawiyah II succeeded him. After his surrender, Marwan was the caliph for just a year before Abdul Malik became caliph at Damascus.
  • 692

    Abdul Malik Becomes the Sole Caliph

    After sending an attack and killing Abdullah ibn Zubaid in Makkah, Abdul Malik secured the Arabian empire and established himself as the sole caliph.