• 570

    Muhammad is born

    Muhammad is born in Mecca.
  • 610

    Muhammad's first revelation

    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
  • 622

    Muhammad undertakes Hijra

    Muhammad undertakes Hijra, migration, from Mecca to Medina. Start of the Islamic calendar.
  • 624

    Battle of Badr

    Battle of Badr
    Muhammad’s forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
  • 625

    Battle of Uhud

    Battle of Uhud
    Quraysh tribe defeats Muslims
  • 627

    Battle of the Trench

    Battle of the Trench
    Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina, Yathrib,
    Lose to Muslim forces
  • 627

    Siege of Bani Qurayzah

    Siege of Bani Qurayzah:
    Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold
    Muhammad approves of the killing of all of the males who had reached puberty, and one female.
    the rest of are sold in exchange for goods
  • 628

    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
    peace agreement is signed between Muhammad’s Muslims and the people of Mecca.
  • 628

    Conquest of Khaybar oasis

    Conquest of Khaybar oasis:
    Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis
    allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
  • 629

    Battle of Mu’tah

    Battle of Mu’tah:
    Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance
    resulting in a Muslim defeat.
  • 629

    First Pilgrimage

    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
  • 630

    Attempted Siege of Ta’if:

    Attempted Siege of Ta’if
    Muhammad’s forces are unable to siege Ta’if and convert its people to Islam.
  • 630

    Non-violent conquest of Mecca:

    Non-violent conquest of Mecca
    The Quraysh realize that the Muslims outnumber them
    allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
  • 630

    Battle of Hunayn

    Battle of Hunayn
    Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
  • 632

    Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage

    Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage:
    only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
  • 632

    Muhammad dies

    Muhammad dies in Medina,
    not naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
  • Period: 632 to 634

    Abu Bakr becomes first caliph

    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • Period: 634 to 644

    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr

    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr,
    becomes the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 637

    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.

    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
  • 637

    Muslim invasion of the Levant

    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • Period: 644 to 656

    'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds

    'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds 'Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 650

    Uthman Qur'an Codex

    several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an
    destroys the others, 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.
  • Period: 656 to 661

    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds

    'Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds 'Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 670

    Hasan ibn 'Ali is poisoned

    Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death
  • 680

    Husayn ibn is beheaded

    Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.