Arabia before Muhammad~ Mecca & its importance-It was an important trade stop.
-It was the religious center of Arabia.
-The freshwater well intrigued people to stay there.
-It was very diverse. (Arabs, Christians, Jews...)
-It had location of Kaaba. (shrine with 300 idols)
Arabia before Muhammad~ Early Arabs-Arab (abhar= to move or pass)
-Arabia's first inhabitants were Bedouins (nomadic Arabs)
-The origins were either from Africa or Mesopotamia.
-Biblical Tradition: Arabs are Semites.
-Qur'anic tradition: Arabs are descendants of Abraham's son.
-Valued camels and swords above all else.
-No strong central government
-Practiced animistic polytheism (many gods)
Arabia before Muhammad~Quraysh-A powerful local tribe of Arabs
-They encouraged tribes to leave their idols in Kaaba and protected them but for a profit.
Muhammad's call to Prophet~ Muhammad's early life
Muhammad's call to Prophet~family
Caliph Abu Bakr-He was one of Muhammad's original followers.
-After Muhammad's death, many of his closest advisors suggested Abu be the caliph.
-His first task was to reunite the community.
The life of Muhammad~ Marriage
The life of Muhammad~ Suspecting something is wrong~ When he was 40, started thinking something was wrong.
~ Many people were wealthy like his family but they didn't share it with the poor and the tribes were at constant war.
~ Disturbed by the problems he retreated to the mountains.
~ He stayed in a cave and prayed and fasted there.
~ His time there would form the basis of the holiday,Ramadan.
The life of Muhammad~ His visions and teachings-17th day in the mountains, he discovered a vision. The angel Gabriel appeared.
- Gabriel revealed the sacred word of Allah in Arabic and commanded Muhammad to repeat the word and share it with other people. At first, he only shared the words with his wife and her Christian cousin. They told him to recite it and follow the command. He kept it to himself for 2 more years.
- He was chosen as a prophet to reveal Allah's will to the Arabic people.
- 612, he shared his visions by command of Gabriel.
The life of Muhammad~ Facing Discrimination
The life of Muhammad~ First Islamic Community
The life of Muhammad~ Leaving Mecca-Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Yathrib.
-The Quraysh were furious and wanted revenge because never before had an Arab tribe split to become its own.
- Status was then based on religious allegiances instead of kin or family.
- Their settlement would become the city of Medina.
The life of Muhammad~ MedinaSet up:
- He set out to build a Muslim city.
- He made precedents for the faith.
-His home served as the first mosque.
-The mosque was made to nurture the community.
Evolution of Islam:
-He had as many as 11 wives after his first died and even though the maximum is 4, the rule can be bent if it is to help her as it can be bent in other ways.
- Free worship was intended.
-The direction while praying was changed.(quiblah) It was changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.
Constitution of Medina
The life of Muhammad~ His death and his impact
Arabia after Muhammad's death-Even after Muhammad's death, his message had still spread.
-Around 100,000 Muslim Arabs were at his death.
-It wasn't clear who would lead the Muslim faith.
-Some of the tribes he converted had fallen away and some refused to give zakat and others found new prophets to inspire them.
Abu Bakhr- areas he conquered
Caliph Umar- Areas he conquered
Caliph Umar- accomplishments-credited for basic policies of Islamic Empire for years
-allowed conquered people to live with how they choose to live with a special tax
-claimed a harsh but fair ruler
Abu Bakhr- Riddah Wars-These were series of wars between Arabs and Muslims.
-Some Arab leaders refused to follow Abu Bakhr because they claimed their commitment was to Muhammad not Islam.
-He led the wars to regain support.
- One battle was at Aqraba which was bloody but he got the rebelling Arabs to join.
Caliph Uthman-areas he conquered-He expanded to include Iran, North Africa, and the Caucuses.
Caliph Uthman-accomplishments-assembled a committee to complete and standardize Quran with Umar then ordered other versions to be destroyed.
-He memorized the whole Quran
Caliph Ali~first fitna-internal conflict
-war that created split between Muslims
-was because disaggreement about who should be caliph
Caliph Ali- Trouble with Ali
Umayyad Dynasty-areas conquered-It conquered North Africa, Spain, and parts of Central Asia and doubled its size.
Umayyad Dynasty- problems
Abbasid Dynasty-The empire before set their eyes on the West which included North Africa, Southern Europe, and the Meditteranean but the Abbasid had their eyes on the East.
-Established city at Baghdad
The Crusades-violent campaigns by Christian armies against Muslims
-9 crusades made to Israel
-Most fighting was in Jerusalem, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia.
- Established Crusader states, such as Edessa, Galilee, Antioch, and Tripoli.
-In 1291, they were defeated and Muslim armies took control once again.
-Successful crusades did little to expand christianity