Spread of Islam_LRossi

By lurossi
  • 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad- Mecca

    Mecca was a major trade location with a very diverse population of Arabs, Christians, Jews, etc. that settled there because of the city's freshwater well. Kaaba, a shrine with 300 religious idols, is located in Mecca.
  • 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad- Arabs

    The majority of the first Arabs were Bedouins, who were nomadic, originating in Mesopotamia or Africa. They valued camels and swords. They didn't have a central government, and were polytheistic.
  • 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad- Quraysh

    The Quraysh were a powerful tribe of Arabs. They encouraged other tribes to put their idols in the Kabba while they guarded them in exchange for money.
  • Period: 573 to 634

    Abu Bakr

    Abu Bakr was the leader that immediately followed Muhammad, chosen by a council of Muhammad's advisers. He ruled from 632-634. His first task was reuniting the community, which he did in part by forcing tribes to return to Islam, called the Riddah Wars. He united central Arabia, and also began to record Muhammad's revelations, forming the basis of the Quran.
  • Period: 574 to 656


    Uthman ruled from 644 to 656. He expanded the Muslim empire to Iran, North Africa, and the Caucuses. He gave his family high-paying authoritative jobs throughout the empire, angering many. He was assassinated, and a civil war ensued. Uthman standardized the Quran, sending the official copy to all Muslim provinces and ordered that all other copies be burned.
  • 580

    Muhammad's Early Life/Family

    Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe sometime between 570 and 580. Supposedly, angels told his mother to name him Muhammad.His father died before he was born, and his mother died when he was six, so he was raised by his uncle. He had a reputation as a seeker of solitude.
  • Period: 586 to 644


    While Umar was at first an enemy of Muhammad, he converted to Islam in 615 and became one of Muhammad's advisers. When Abu Bakr died in 634, Umar became the caliph, or leader of the Muslims. He ruled from 634-644. He conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, among other Byzantine lands. He also moved into Iran and Egypt, and conquered Jerusalem. He established basic policies used in the Islamic empire for centuries. He was a harsh but respected ruler.
  • 600

    The Life of Muhammad-Marriage

    When Muhammad was 25, he married a woman he had been hired to work for named Khadijah bint al-Khuwaylid. They had four children, the most famous was his daughter Fatima, who married Muhammad's cousin and heir to his throne, Ali.
  • Period: 600 to 661


    A civil war began as Ali took the role of Caliph, who ruled from 656-661. This conflict, called the First Fitnah, was the first war within the Muslim community. Some people wanted Ali to take the role of Caliph, while others didn't. While the fighting ceased when Ali was killed in 661, the dispute led to an official divide in the religion.
  • 610

    The Life of Muhammad- Suspecting Something is Wrong

    Muhammad became greatly disturbed by the warring tribes around him, and the wealthy not sharing with the poor. He went to the mountains to pray and fast in solitude.
  • 612

    The Life of Muhammad- His Vision and Teachings

    On Muhammad's seventeenth day of prayer in the mountains, the angel Gabriel appeared before Muhammad. The angel told Muhammad the word of Allah and commanded him to share it with his people. He continued visiting the cave and Gabriel would tell Muhammad more of Allah's teachings. He decided to share the teachings at last, and became a preacher. He gained followers because of his messages, and his revelations were written in a book called the Quran.
  • 617

    The Life of Muhammad- Facing Descrimination

    Muhammad was discriminated against in Mecca. City leaders declared that Muslims could not be given food, so they faced starvation for two years, which was the duration of the boycott.
  • 621

    The Life of Muhammad- First Islamic Community

    Tribes from Yathrib visit Muhammad. His teachings help them end their conflict, and they convert to Islam and form the first Islamic community.
  • 622

    The Life of Muhammad- Leaving Mecca

    Sensing danger in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers left, moving to Yathrib. This infuriated the Quraysh.
  • 622

    The Life of Muhammad- Medina

    Muhammad and his followers created the first Muslim city, Medina. Muhammad's home served as the first mosque. Muhammad took as many as 11 wives after Khadijah died. The maximum he had established was four, but he viewed these as politically necessary. He also said having more than four wives was allowed if one was trying to help a woman in need. Today, the maximum of four wives is seen as flexible. Muhammad changed the direction that Muslims face when they pray, so that now they face Mecca.
  • 622

    Constitution of Medina

    The Constitution of Medina was created by Muhammad. It gave Jews and Christians in conquered territories freedom of religion, as long as they paid a tax.
  • 632

    Muhammad's Death and Impact

    By the time Muhammad died, most of the region was united in the faith of Islam. Islam continued to spread after Muhammad's death, and now there are over 1.5 billion Muslims around the world.
  • 632

    Arabia After Muhammad's Death

    After Muhammad's death, it was unclear who would lead the 100,000 Muslims. Many converted tribes fell away.
  • Period: 661 to 750

    Umayyad Dynasty

    The Umayyad family ruled the Arab kingdom from 661-750. They conquered Spain, North Africa, and parts of Central Asia. However, not many of the people in the lands they conquered actually converted to Islam.
  • Period: 750 to 1258

    Abbasid Dynasty

    The Abbasid dynasty focused on expanding the Islamic empire out to the east. They established their capital in Baghdad. Internal rivalries broke down the empire over time until it was taken by the Mongols.
  • Period: 1095 to 1291

    The Crusades

    The Crusades were violent attacks by the Christians against the Muslims. There were 9 crusades in total. Major fighting occurred in Jerusalem, as well as Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Anatolia, and even Spain. Even more successful Crusades did little to expand Christian power in the Middle East because the Crusaders were isolated in a few walled cities. The Crusaders were defeated in 1291.