AP World History - Chapter 7 (570-680)

  • 570

    Birth of the prophet Muhammad

    Muhammad was a prophet of Islam born to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca. He was raised by his father’s family (dad was deceased and mom died some years later).
  • Period: 597 to 626

    Wars between the Byzantine and Sassanian (Persian) Empire

    There was peace between the two empires, for a decade, but the battle continued after khosrau the 2nd’s ally (Maurice) died. He wanted to avenge Maurice, and so he invaded the Byzantine Empire.
  • 610

    Muhammad’s first Revelations

    In 610 (or possibly earlier) Muhammad received his first revelations. Hi followers believe Allah transmitted them to him the Angel Gabriel.
  • 613

    Muhammad begins to preach the new faith

    Muhammad begins to preach the new faith
    In the beginning Muhammad had a very small following (mainly his wife, members of his clan and some servants/slaves). The new faith that he preached threatened the gods of Kamba, thus making Muhammad a target to kill. The Umayyads and other clans plotted to kill him, so he knew he must escape.
  • 622

    Muhammad’s fight (Hijra) from Mecca to Medina

    Muhammad’s skills and clever plots, along with the help of his cousin and son-in-law, Ali, allowed Muhammad to make it to Medina without being killed. At one point Ali even traded places with Muhammad, making him a target of the assassins. Hijra marked the first year of the Islamic calendar.
  • Period: 624 to 627

    Wars between the followers of Muhammad and the Quraysh of Mecca

    The Umayyad’s only got angrier as Muhammad continued to grow his following in Medina. Plus, the muslim raids on Meccan caravans only increased their rage. So, in the mid-620s the Quraysh started an array of attacks on Muhammad and Medina. Ultimately, Muhammad won and made a treaty with Quraysh in 628.
  • 628

    Muslim-Meccan truce

    In 628, Muhammad and his followers made a treaty with the Quraysh. This allowed the Muslims access to visit the shrine at Ka’ab in Mecca.
  • 630

    Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph

    Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph
    In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca triumphantly as he had gained many Bedouin allies and more than 10,000 converts. He “proved” the power of Allah, and destroyed the idols of the shrine. He slowly won over the Umayyads to the new faith.
  • 632

    Death of Muhammad

    Muhammad died in 632, and failed to appoint a new successor or even an agenda on how a new leader could be chosen. This caused a great division between the Muslim community.
  • Period: 632 to 634

    Rule of Caliph Abu Bakr

    Abu Bakr succeeded Muhammad’s position as he was one of Muhammad’s earliest followers and closest friends. ABu Bakr was very wise and courageous, and had a great history of Bedouin tribes (this meant he new which tribes could become allies and which could be turned to enemies). However he had no financial support from the community so he had to keep a part time job as a merchant.
  • Period: 633 to 634

    Ridda Wars in Arabia

    The commanders that Abu Bakr controlled turned out to be very skilled. They continued to crush the dominant tribes. So, the defeat of the rival prophets as well as the defeat of some of the larger clans became known as the Ridda Wars. These wars brought the Arabian tribes to the Islamic fold back.
  • Period: 634 to 643

    Early Muslim Conquests in the Byzantine Empire

    The Bedouin forces were only going to Raid for booty, but they saw the vulnerability of the Byzantine Empire, and had changed their mind.
  • Period: 634 to 644

    Rule of Caliph Umar

    He was one of the most authoritative and influential Muslim caliphs ever. He succeeded Abu Bakr as the second caliph.
  • 637

    Arab invasion and destruction of Sassanian Empire

    Arab invasion and destruction of Sassanian Empire
    The Sassanian Empire had grown vulnerable, so they were much easier to defeat. The Arabs attacked, and at first they tried to put up a fight, but the Sassanian empire did not have good enough forces. Thus leading the Muslim warrior to the Sassanian Heartland. This led to a quick demise for the empire.
  • Period: 644 to 656

    Rule of Caliph Uthman

    Uthman was the 3rd caliph and a member of the Umayyad clan thus making him unpopular across many of the tribes. He was murdered by mutinous warriors coming back from Egypt, and his death started a civil war in Islam (between the followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan).
  • Period: 656 to 661

    Rule of Caliph Ali; first civil a war

    The Umayyads were greatly angered by Uthman’s death, but now wanted revenge on Ali because never punished the people that killed Uthman. War started. Ali had the upper hand against the Umayyads. In fact they were about to win until he accepted mediation. This allowed the Umayyads to reorganize their forces and bases.
  • Period: 661 to 680


    Mu’awiya became the new leader of the Umayyads, as well as the new caliph in Jerusalem. His position challenged Ali’s, and a year later he was assassinated.
  • Period: 661 to 750

    Umayyad caliphate

    The Umayyad Caliphate was the 2nd of the 4 dominant caliphate after Muhammad died. Damascus was the Syrian city that was the capital of Umayyad caliphate.
  • 680

    Death of Ali’s son Husayn at Karbala

    Husayn was killed and beheaded during the battle of Karbala on October 10th, 680. Most of his family were also taken in, and held captive as prisoners.
  • Period: 680 to 692

    Second Civil War

    After the interruption of the disputes over succession, the Arab conquest continued once more in the last half of the 7th century.
  • Period: 744 to 750

    Third Civil War; Abbasid revolt

    The Abbasid party was a dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam.The leader was Abu al-Abbas, the great grandson of the project’s uncle. In 750, the Battle of the River Zab took place, and the Abbasids had won against the Umayyads. The result was conquest of Syria, and capture of Umayyad capital.
  • 750

    Abbasid caliphate begins

    Abbasid caliphate begins
    Abu al-Abbas wanted to completely wipe out the Umayyad family, and in the end most of them were killed and slaughtered. The Abbasids, became more and more independent and powerful as they rejected old allies. Now, they were free to build up!