Spread of islam_Mmassoud

  • Period: 8 BCE to 570

    Arabia before Muhammad-Mecaa

    Important trade and religious center of Arabia.
    People settled there because of the fresh water.
    There are Arabs, Christians, Jews, etc.
    They had the Kaaba
    Mecca is the location of the Kaaba
  • Period: 8 BCE to 507

    Arabia Before Muhammad-Quraysh

    Powerful local tribe of Arabs
    encouraged tribes to deposit idols in the Kaaba and protected them for a fee
  • Period: 6 to 507

    Arabia before Muhammad-Arabs

    Arabs are descendants of Abraham's son Ishmael
    They also practiced animistic polytheism
    Arabs had no strong central government.
    The first inhabits were Bedouins
    They were Semites
  • Period: 498 to 508

    Life of Muhammad- Medina

    Muhammad set out to build a Muslim city. In doing so, he set many precedents for the faith. For example, his home in Medina served as the first mosque. Its rooms were large and spacious, yet the purpose of the building was to nurture the community. This has been the basis for every mosque built since. In Medina, Muhammad allowed the followers of all faiths to worship freely. He had another vision, which inspired him to make another important change to Islamic religious ritual .
  • Period: 507 to 507

    Muhammad’s Call to Prophet hood

    He was born into Hashim family of the powerful Quraysh.
    Abgles told his mother Amina to name him Muhammad.
    His father died before his birthand,his mother died when he was six.
    His uncle rasied him,as a young man he worked for a wealthy widow .
    He got married and had 7 childeren.
  • Period: 507 to 507

    Life of Muhammad - Marriage

    When he was about 25 years old, Muhammad was hired by a wealthy widow
    Named Khadijah bint al-Khuwaylid to guide a caravan of goods to Syria.
    Soon after, the two married. They had four daughters, the most of famous of which was Fatima
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Life of Muhammad - Suspecting something is wrong

    When he was around 40, he started to suspect there was something wrong with the way the people of Mecca lived.
    Many people, including members of his own family, had grown wealthy, yet they did not share
    their wealth with the poor and the tribes were constantly at war with one
    another.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Life of Muhammad-His vision & teachings

    Muhammad continued to retreat to the cave, where Gabriel appeared and told him the teachings of Allah.
    In 612, Muhammad decided at last to share his vision.
    Filled with the spirit of God, Muhammad began to preach.
    He began to see himself as part of the line of great biblical
    prophets.
    Muslims eventually came to see Muhammad as a messenger, or prophet, of God, like Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Life of Muhammad -Facing discrimination

    In 617 Muhammad and his converts, called “Muslims,” began facing discrimination in Mecca.
    The leaders of the city declared that the Muslims should be boycotted, which meant that no one could sell or give Muhammad, or his followers, food.
    They faced starvation.
    The boycott lasted two years, during which time two of the people closest to Muhammad, his wife, Khadijah, and his last living relative, AbuTalib, died.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Life of Muhammad-First Islamic Community

    Muhammad had another powerful vision.
    In the dream, he flew to Jerusalem, where he preached to the great biblical prophets and then was taken on a tour of the heavens. Upon waking, Muhammad found that he and his followers were still threatened by the powerful rulers of the city.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    First Islamic Community - Part 2

    Then in 621, a group of tribes from Yathrib came to Mecca to talk to Muhammad. They were tired of fighting amongst themselves. They sought his wisdom and council to end their conflict. They heard his message and converted to Islam, pledging to protect one another. This
    became the first Islamic community.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Life of Muhammad-Leaving Mecca

    Muhammad knew the Muslims were still in danger, his own life had been threatened too.
    In 622 he and his followers left Mecca and moved to Yathrib.
    The year 622 is considered the beginning of the Muslim era.
  • Period: 508 to 508

    Muhammad’s death and his impact

    By the time of his death in 632, Muhammad had united most of the region under his leadership and the faith of Islam.
    After his death, Islam continued to spread around the world.
  • 622

    Constitution of Medina

    When Muhammad put together a document called the Constitution of Medina in about 622 to establish the first Islamic state, he assigned Jews and Christians certain rights and responsibilities. He gave them freedom of religion in return for the payment of a special tax. This tax was later exacted from Christians as well as Jews residing in all conquered territories. It marked them as dhimmis or protected people in the Muslim state.
  • 632

    Arabia after Muhammad’s death

    When Muhammad died in 632 his message had spread and his power had grown. At Muhammad’s death, Muslim Arabs numbered about 100,000. After he died, many of the tribes he had converted fell away, and the tradition of intertribal raids and feuds revived.
  • 632

    Abbasid Dynasty

    The Abbasids replaced the Umayyad dynasty.The Mongols invaded and overthrew the Abbasids. The Umayyads had centered their attention on building the empire out to the West, which included southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and North Africa. The Abbasids chose to look east, and they established their capital at the city of Baghdad.Over the centuries, internal rivalries weakened the Abbasid dynasty.It broke into separate nonreligious dynasties that collapsed when the Mongols laid siege to Baghdad.
  • 634

    Caliph Abu Bakr

    According to many accounts, he began the process of preparing a formal record of Muhammad’s revelations that would eventually be codified in the Quran so all Muslims would share a common holy book. Although he died in 634, only two years after Muhammad, his leadership helped keep Islam together.
  • 634

    Caliph Abu Bakr

    Abu baker was one of Muhammad’s original followers. After Muhammad’s death, a council of many of Muhammad’s closest advisors agreed that Abu Bakr should become the caliph, or leader of both the religious movement and the political power that Muhammad had established. Abu's first task was to reunite the community, which was beginning to fall apart. Under the rule of Muhammad, based on the teaching of the Quran, there was a prohibition against infighting.
  • 634

    Caliph Umar

    Umar led the Arab armies in a remarkable expansion of the Arab kingdom. They conquered lands governed by the Byzantine Empire, including Mesopotamia and Syria.They also began their move into Iran and Egypt.It was at this point that Jerusalem changed from Christian to Muslim hands, setting the stage for long-term conflict. Umar was a brilliant organizer who is credited with establishing the basic policies and institutions that bolstered the Islamic empire for centuries.
  • 644

    Caliph Uthman

    Uthman expanded the Islamic empire to include Iran, North Africa, and the Caucuses. He placed family members in well-paid positions of authority throughout the empire. This angered many and opened him to charges of corruption. Uthman was subsequently assassinated, which was followed by civil war when his assassins were not punished. Uthman also standardized the Qu’ran, which had existed in various versions. When the official edition was completed, he sent manuscripts to all the Muslim.
  • 644

    Caliph Ali

    One group believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should become the caliph and that only his descendants could be Muslim leaders. This group became known as Shiites. Another group, known as Sunnis, believed that rule was not limited to descendants of Ali but that any good Muslim could become a leader.
  • 644

    Caliph Ali

    The First Fitna was the first major internal conflict within the Muslim community. The conflict led to a civil war and a major split between two groups of Muslims. The conflict occurred because Muslims disagreed about who should be the caliph, or successor to Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
  • 661

    Umayyad dynasty

    From 661 to 750, the Arab kingdom was ruled by the Umayyad family, and the Umayyad dynasty was the first great Islamic dynasty. The Umayyad added Spain, North Africa, and parts of Central Asia to the kingdom, effectively doubling its size. When the Umayyad dynasty fell to rebel fighters in 750, it was replaced by the Abbasid dynasty, which ruled until 1258.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades have become known as a violent series of campaigns by Christian armies against the Muslim world. There were nine crusades made to modern-day Israel, where so many holy places associated with Christianity and Islam existed. The Crusades were extensive, as Christians tried to retake land that had been captured by the Islamic Empire. Major fighting centered on Jerusalem, the holy city, but also took place in the regions of Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    During the Fourth Crusade, the Crusaders never reached the Holy Land and, instead, attacked Constantinople, the capital of the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire. Jews and Eastern Orthodox Christians were killed because they were believed to be heretics by members of the western Church.