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The Creation of the Religion Islam and the Expansion of Islam

  • 570

    Muhamad Born

    Muhamad Born
    Born following the death of his father, Muhammad, as per the Arab custom, was unable to inherit anything, thus he was prepared for a life of poverty.
  • 595

    Muhammad travels to Seria with Khadija, a wealthy woman who asks him to be her quardian and manager.

    Muhammad travels to Seria with Khadija, a wealthy woman who asks him to be her quardian and manager.
    Following the trip to Seria, after a sucessful bussiness acomplishment, Khadija asks Muhammed to marry her. From this point on Muhammad was a wealthy man. Khadija was the first person to convert to Islam and known as the mother of Islam.
  • Period: 596 to Jan 1, 610

    Muhammad speads a considerable time in solitude, reflecting upon the problems of Mecca.

  • Period: Jan 1, 605 to Apr 28, 632

    Fatima

    The beloved daughter of Muhammad and Kadijah. Upon her mother's death, Fatima takes on the role of the protector and guardian of Muhammad. She laters Marries Ali, and gives Muhammad his only descendants.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel

    Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel
    During meditation in a cave named Hira, Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel and is told, "You are the messenger of God." The angel asks him to recite, to which Muhammad replies that he cannot read. The angel was persisted and seized Muhammed and says, "Proclaim! In the name of thy Lord and CHerisher, Who created man, out of a clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is most bountiful, Who taught the pen, taught man that which he knew not. (Qur'an 96:1-5)
  • Period: Jan 1, 610 to Jan 1, 632

    Muhammad continues to hear messages from God Via Gabriel

    During Muhammad's life, he continued to recieve messages from Garbriel every so often while he meditated.
  • Period: Jan 1, 610 to Jan 1, 630

    The new religion of Islam becomes rooted

    Over an aproximate 20 year time-span, Islam becomes rooted. Alliance gradually built up, thus making Muhammad the strongest man of influance in a fast growing Muslim Nation. He insists that those wanting association with him, become Muslims.
  • Period: Jan 1, 612 to Jan 1, 632

    Muhammad shares revelations to the public

    Muhammad gains followers who hang on his every word. The young men became known as Muslims. Sometime mistreated by the merchants of Mecca, Muhammad and his followers held fast to their beliefs.
  • Jan 1, 616

    8 followers of Muhammad, flee to Ethiopia.

    To escape the boycott thrusted upon Mecca to not trade with the Muslims, 8 leave for Ethiopia More flee over the next few years.
  • Jan 1, 621

    Laylar al-Mi'raj

    Laylar al-Mi'raj
    Muhammad took a spiritual and physical journey, during one single night (circa 621). He travels on the back of a horse named Buraq to the "furthest mosque". Muhammad leads other muslims in prayer. According to the Qur'an and the Hadith, Muhammad ascends to heaven and speaks directly to God. During this conversation, God revels the details of the salat prayer. Muhammad brings these instructions back to the faithful.
  • Jan 1, 622

    Revelations recieved by the prophet Muhammed

    Revelations recieved by the prophet Muhammed
    Following what he professed to be an angelic aspiritions which revelled to him, the words of Allah, Muhammad dictated the Qur'an (the holy book of Islam).
  • Jan 1, 622

    Muhammad flees Mecca

    Muhammad flees Mecca
    After years of mistreatment from the merchants of Mecca, Muhammad joins approximately 70 of his followers in Medina. Hijra, or emmigration from one's place of living to another, which is the era on which the Islamic, is established as the base of Islam.
  • Mar 1, 624

    Muhammad invades Mecca

    Muhammad invades Mecca
    Following Muhammad's move to Medina, the number of his followers grow. Several clashes with the Muslims and the merchants of Mecca precided this date, however Muhammad lead this attack himself. With a force of over 300 men, they defeated a band of over 800 Meccans, thus delivering a serious blow to the ego of the powers that be in Mecca. The Muslims firmly believe that God is protecting them.
  • Mar 1, 625

    Mecca retaliates, Muslims begin to doubt they're devine protection.

    Mecca retaliates, Muslims begin to doubt they're devine protection.
    The Arabs of Mecca attack Medina, causing many to flee to the hills. Although this skermish was considereda win for the Muslims as the Meccans retreated, many began to doubt their protection of God.
  • Apr 1, 627

    Meccans and Aab allies siege Medina

    Meccans and Aab allies siege Medina
    Muhammad's forces trick the Meccans and their allies by digging a vast trench and the central area of Medina. Faith in God and Muhammad teachings are regained.
  • Mar 1, 628

    Treaty of al-hudaybiya

    Treaty of al-hudaybiya
    Triumphant for Muhammad and his followers, this treaty lead to the conversion of hundred of Meccans and nomads to the belief in the God of the Muslims.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Victory of Hunayn

    Victory of Hunayn
    Following a criticism of the treay, Muhammad and ten thousand men enter Mecca, and conquer the city. Ka'ba is cleansed and the pilramage rites of those coming to Mecca are Islamicized. The tribes of the Arab world vow allegence to Muhammad.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Muhammad dies

    Muhammad dies
    At his death Muhammad had 9 wives and 1 concubine. His life was reverred by the Muslims. Polictically he supplied the fundations necessary to complete these achievemnts, through these marraiges and cement unity with the Arab tribes.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Abu Bakr

    Abu Bakr
    Upon Muhammad's death, his followers chose the kalifa (successor in Arabic). Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law and close friend, was chosen over Ali, his cousin and son-in-law. Abu Bakr becomes the first of 4 caliphs (political, religious leader "kalifa').
    Noted acheivements:
    -realizes need to expand Islam
    -declares Jahad agaist Byzantine Christians but dies prior to carrying this out
  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 661

    Caliphs chosen

    Islamic religious leaders chosen upon the deaths of their sucessors.
  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 644

    Shari'ah Law

    Developed during the reign of Abu Bakr, then subsequently Umar, the "path and the way" of Islam (Shari'ah Law). This law covers many fascets of the culture of Islam including crime, politics, secular laws, intercourse, diet, prayer, hygeine, fasting and the over all expected daily behavior of Muslims.
  • Jan 1, 634

    Abu Bakr dies a new caliph is chosen

    Abu Bakr dies a new caliph is chosen
    Umar (father-in-law) chosen as second caliph. He added "commader to the Faithful" as a title for caliphs. He lead many victories and greatly expanded Islam. Noted Acheivements:

    -added Commander of the Faitful as title for caliphs
    -expand Islam through a series of victories against Muslim opposition
    -institutes "religious tolerance"
    -creates tax, the kharaj, for landowners and farmers
    - creates tax, the jizya, for non-muslims to pay in return for the freedon to practice their own religions.
  • Jan 1, 635

    Damascus Conquered

  • Jan 1, 637

    Jerusalem conquered

  • Jan 1, 637

    Ctesiphon conquered

    The expansion of Islam under Umar's leadership continues.
  • Jan 1, 641

    The fall of Babylon

  • Jan 1, 642

    Alexandris is taken

    This ends the Christian rule in Egypt to this day.
  • Jan 1, 644

    The assasination of Umar

    Christian Persia was not convinced that Islam was the way to go, A Persian Christian assasinates Umar.
  • Jan 1, 644

    Uthman chosen as third calih.

    A rich man from the Umayyad family, was chosen as Umar's sucessor. THis displeased the Muslims. Althugh he continued to expand Islam, he was considered by Muslims to be frivolous and bias toward his own family and friend, chosing them for high positions and depleating the treasury of Islam.
    Notes Accomplishments:
    -created a simple text of the Qur'an
  • Jan 1, 656

    Assasination of Uthman and civil war to determine the 4th caliph

    A group of Muslims who were against Uthman, believing him to be frivolous and of tampering with the words of the Qur'an, resulted in a civil war were Muslims fought Muslims over the chosing of the 4th and last of the caliths. Ali and Mu'aiya were the 2 men at the head of this conflict.
  • Jan 1, 660

    Umayyad Dynasty Begins

    The civil war comes to an end after the assasination of Ali. Mu'awiya declares himself caliph.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

  • Jan 1, 680

    Beginning of Shi'a sect.

    There are now 2 sects of Islam, the Sunni and the Shia Islam.