Spread of Islam_MStrand

  • Period: 1 CE to 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad

    • Mecca was important trade and religious stop - Diversified city - location of Kaaba (important shrine) - fresh water there
  • Period: 1 CE to 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad

    • Bedouins were the majority of first inhabitants (nomadic Arab) - Biblical: Arabs are descendants of Noah - Qur'anic: Arabs are descendants of Ismael - camels and swords were beloved - no strong government - practiced polytheism
  • Period: 1 CE to 570

    Arabia Before Muhammad

    • Quraysh; strong local tribe - protected idols in the Kaaba for riches
  • 570

    Muhammad's Call to Prophethood

    • Born in 570, into the Hashim family of the Quraysh tribe - Angels went to Anima to foretell of his coming - worked for a wealthy widow - married Khadija had 7 children and only 1 survived
  • 570

    Muhammad's Call to Prophethood

    • Abdallah his father dies before he is born - Amina dies when he is six - Uncle takes care of him - Abu Talib
  • 595

    Life of Muhammad - Marriage

    • Muhammad marries Khadijah - has a daughter named Fatima - Fatima marries Muhammad's cousin Ali
  • 610

    Life of Muhammad - Suspecting Something Wrong

    • when Muhammad is about 40 he starts to notice that something is wrong; his wealthy family won't share with the poor + tribes were always at war
  • Period: 610 to 612

    Life of Muhammad - Revelations/Teachings

    • Disturbed by his community, Muhammad goes into the mountains, fasting and praying - Muslims now recognize this practice as Ramadan - Angel visits him on 17th day and shares the word of Allah - tells only wife and cousin about miraculous event - they both encourage him to share what he experienced - waits two years to share
  • 612

    Life of Muhammad - Preachings

    • continues to go to the mountain - began to start preaching - preached that there is only one god; Allah - told rich to share with the poor - told people no pressure to convert - gained followers
  • Period: 617 to 619

    Life of Muhammad - Facing Discrimination

    • Quraysh wasn't happy with Muhammad's teachings as they worshipped pagan gods - leaders in Mecca discriminate; telling people they should boycott - his wife and Abu Talib die during boycott years - everyone is starving
  • 621

    Life of Muhammad - First Islamic Community

    • a tribe called the Yathrib want to be a part of Islam as they are tired of warring - want wisdom from Muhammad to help solve the conflict - this became the first Islamic community
  • 622

    Life of Muhammad - Leaving Mecca

    • Muslims were still in danger in Mecca - move to Yathrib tribe - 622 considered start of Muslim era - Quraysh was furious - no Arab tribe had ever split - very different time - Muhammad tells his people that he respects and will protect everyone's opinions and beliefs - starts the settlement of Medina
  • Period: 622 to 632

    Life of Muhammad - Medina

    1. - Set up to be the first Muslim city - built the first mosque
    2. - changed the qiblah or direction that Muslims face during prayer - face towards Mecca instead of Jerusalem
  • Period: 622 to 1258

    Constitution of Medina

    What it said: - Everyone including people of other faiths under the Umayyad dynasty had to pay taxes to support the empire
    Who made it: - Muhammad
  • 632

    Life of Muhammad - Death + Impact on the World

    • united people under leadership and faith - Islam continued to spread rapidly - more than 1.5 billion Muslims today
  • Period: 632 to 634

    Caliph Abu Bakr

    Who he was: - Muhammad’s closest friend and most trusted advisor - became the new leader for the Muslim - reunited the collapsing community and died just 2 years after Muhammad
    Areas conquered: - Arabian occupied near the Arabian Peninsula - Arabs spread Islam beyond into Europe
  • Period: 632 to 634

    Caliph Abu Bakr - Riddah Wars

    Riddah Wars: - Riddah Wars were a campaign against ex-Muslims who refused to follow Abu Bakr, and claimed they only followed Muhammad, not Islam - Abu Bakr fought the Arabs to regain their support - Abu Bakr won and the Arabs agreed to follow Islam and helped spread the religion beyond the Arabian Peninsula
  • Period: 633 to 644

    Caliph Umar - Accomplishments

    • Formulated the first laws and policies of the Islamic Empire which sustained the empire for many years - thought that people should be able to have their own land and believe whatever religion they wanted - fair ruler overall
  • Period: 634 to 644

    Caliph Umar

    Conquered areas: After Abu Bakr had declared war on the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires, Uman took Bakr’s place when Abu died just 2 years after Muhammad - Umar was a good war leader and took control over a well desired Jerusalem along with modern-day Iraq, Syria, Iran, Palestine, and Egypt
  • Period: 644 to 656

    Caliph Uthman

    Areas he conquered: - as ruler, Uthman broadened Arab territory, gaining Iran, Northern Africa, and Caucuses
    Important accomplishments: - Uthman was the first person ever to memorize the whole entire Quran - standardized the Quran by destroying all other versions of Quran and made his own edition.
  • Period: 656 to 661

    Caliph Ali

    • The problem was that two different groups of people had different views on who should succeed Uthman - some people thought it should have been an decent Muslim person (Sunni), but others thought it should be Muhammad’s son in law Ali (Shiites) - Ali was later murdered and taken over by a Sunni leader
  • Period: 661 to 750

    Umayyad Dynasty

    Areas conquered: - Umayyad dynasty expanded their region collecting North Africa, Spain, and parts of Central Asia
    Problems: - The large empire and area of land made it difficult to govern - rebels overthrew empire in 750
  • Period: 750 to 1258

    Abbasid Dynasty

    Areas conquered: - Replaced the Umayyad dynasty - conquered more of Central Asia
    Capital: - Moved capital to Baghdad
  • Period: 1095 to 1291

    The Crusades

    What is a crusade? - A military mission to control the holy city of Jerusalem
    How many total were made? - There were 9 Crusades total
    What were the major fighting regions? - Jerusalem, Spain, Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia
    What were the outcomes of the Crusades? - Islamic culture remained in Jerusalem, and the Christians were defeated and not successful in over throwing Jerusalem