Arabia Before Muhammad-Makkah-Important trade stop and religious center of Arabia
-People settle there because of fresh water well
-Location of Kaaba(Shrine of 300 idols)
-Population very diverse:Arabs,Christions,Jews
Arabia Before Muhammad-Early Arabs-Majority of Arabs first inhabitants were bedouins
-Valued camels and swords above all else
-Had no strong central government
-Practiced animistic polythistic
Arabia Before Muhammad-Quraysh-Powerful local tribe of Arabs
-Encourage tribes to deposit idols in Kaaba and protect them for a fee
Muhammad’s Call to Prophethood-Early life-Angles told mother, Anima to name child Muhamad
-As a young man worked for a young widow
-father, Abdallah died before birth
-Raised by uncle. Abu Talib
-Born into Hashim family
Muhammad’s Call to Prophethood-Family-Married Kadjia and had seven kids( only 1 daughter, Fatima survived)
-Had reputation of seeker of solitude
Life of Muhammad-Marriage
Period: 600 to 1400
The Crusades What is a crusade? How many total were made? Major fighting regions Outcomes of the CrusadesIn 638, Islamic armies had captured Jerusalem in order to protect one of their holy sites. Now, Christians invaded Jerusalem for the same reason—to protect their holy city and people on pilgrimage. The actual reasons may have been more political. Kingdoms in Europe were growing in strength and competing with Islamic kingdoms for trade routes and revenue. European rulers saw the Crusades as an opportunity to demonstrate, as well as increase, their power, influence, and wealth.
Life of Muhammad-Suspecting something is wrong-Many people, including members of his own family, had grown wealthy, yet they did not share their wealth with the poor
- He found a cave and spent several days there praying and fasting
-. On his seventeenth day in the mountains, Muhammad had a
miraculous vision The angel Gabriel appeared to him
Life of Muhammad-His vision & teachings
Life of Muhammad-Facing discrimination-Not everyone was happy with Muhammad’s message, including the Quraysh, who were content to worship their pagan gods
- In 617 Muhammad and his converts, called “Muslims,” began facing discrimination in Mecca.
-Muhammad found that he and his followers were still threatened by the powerful rulers of the city.
Life of Muhammad-First Islamic Community
Life of Muhammad-Leaving Mecca
Life of Muhammad-Medina How it was set up-set out to build a Muslim city
-he set many precedents for the faith
-in Medina served as the first mosque
Life of Muhammad-Medina How Islam evolved there-This has been the basis for every mosque built since.
-In Medina, Muhammad allowed the followers of all faiths to worship freely.
-h inspired him to make another important change to Islamic religious ritual. In accordance with his vision, he changed the
quiblah, or the direction that Muslims face for their prayers.
Life of Muhammad-Muhammad’s death and his impact-Muhammad had united most of the region under his leadership and the faith of Islam.
- After his death, Islam continued to spread around the world.
-They are all followers of a man named Muhammad
- inspired a religion and way of life that has spread to every corner of the globe.
-Today there is more then 1.5 billion
Arabia after Muhammad’s death-After he died, many of the tribes he had converted fell away, and the tradition of intertribal raids and feuds revived.
- These activities were, after all, an important source of income. Some tribes refused to pay zakat
-Some tribes found new prophets to inspire them
Period: 632 to 634
Caliph Abu Bakr Who he was Riddah Wars Areas he conquered-Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s dearest friend and trusted advisor
-after Muhammad’s death in 632, Abu Bakr was chosen to be Muhammad’s successor
-Abu Bakr was one of Muhammad’s original followers
-Caliph Abu Bakr immediately set about forcing the tribes to return to Islam
Period: 634 to 644
Caliph Umar Areas he conquered Important accomplishmentsUmar ibn Al-khattab was the second of the “Four Righteous Caliphs.” These were the first four heads of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. At first an enemy of Muhammad, Umar converted to Islam in about 615. Along with Abu Bakr, Umar became an adviser to Muhammad, who married one of Umar’s daughters. When Muhammad died in 632, Abu Bakr became the first caliph. Just before his death two years later, he chose Umar to succeed him as caliph.
Period: 644 to 656
Caliph Uthman Areas he conquered Important accomplishmentsWhen Caliph Umar lay mortally wounded, he formed a council that appointed Uthman, then 70 years old, to be caliph. During his reign, Uthman expanded the Islamic empire to include Iran, North Africa, and the Caucuses. He placed family members in well-paid positions of authority throughout the empire. This angered many and opened him to charges of corruption. Uthman was subsequently assassinated,
Period: 661 to 750
Umayyad dynasty Areas conquered ProblemsArab expansion continued for the next 100 years. A new set of rulers called the Umayyad Dynasty (661–750) doubled the size of the empire by adding North Africa, Spain, and parts of Central Asia. The larger the empire, the more difficult it was to govern. In 750, rebels overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty
Period: 750 to 1243
Caliph Ali The trouble with Ali First FitnahThe First Fitna, also spelled Fitnah, was the first major internal conflict within the Muslim community. It occurred from 656 to 661. The conflict led to a civil war and a major split between two groups of Muslims. The conflict occurred because Muslims disagreed about who should be the caliph, or successor to Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
Period: 750 to 1258
Abbasid Dynasty Areas conquered CapitalThe Abbasid dynasty was one of two important Muslim dynasties established after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632. These dynasties made up the Muslim Empire of the Caliphate, which included all the lands and people under Muslim rule. The Abbasids replaced the Umayyad dynasty in 750. In 1258.
Constitution of Medina What it said, Who made itAs the 62-year-old prophet Muhammad lay dying, many believed he said something regarding those who would succeed him. No one today is quite sure what he said. In one version, he is said to have uttered, “Oh God, have pity on those who succeed me.” If this is true, then perhaps Muhammad realized that his failure to name a successor would create discord in his ummah, or community of believers. There are, however, Muslims who do not agree with this story.