The Permissive Period for English Language Learners (1700-1880)

  • Period: to

    General Tolerance

    Generally tolerant of different languages especially those Northern Europe
  • Yale College founded in Connecticut

    Yale College founded in Connecticut
    Harvard was previously chartered in 1650.
  • Catholic Missions

    Catholic Missions
  • First American Library

    First American Library
    Founded in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin.
  • Princeton University Founded

    Princeton University Founded
    Princeton University founded in New Jersey.
  • Declaration of Indepedence

    Declaration of Indepedence
    The United States of America declares independence from Britain.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    Articles of Confederation were drafted as the first government in the United States. These articles were drafted in English, French, and German.
  • Anti-British, Anti-English Sentiments

    During the American Revolution, during the height of Anti-British sentiments, other languages such as Hebrew, French, Greek, etc.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris is ratified by Congress, ending the Revolutionary War.
  • United States Constitution

    United States Constitution
    Thirty nine delegates voted to approve and sign the final draft of the new Constitution. John Adams brought up the idea of making English the official language of the country.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
  • Request to Print Federal Laws in German

    Request to Print Federal Laws in German
    Rep. Thomas Hartley of Pennsylvania argued that “it was perhaps desirable that the Germans should learn English; but if it is our object to give present information, we should do it in the language understood. The Germans who are advanced in years cannot learn our language in a day. It would be generous in the Government to inform those persons. Many honest men, in the late disturbances [the Whiskey Rebellion], were led away by misrepresentation; ignorance of the laws laid them open to deception
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

  • US Population: 7,239,881

    1,919,362 were slaves.
  • Louisiana becomes the first state in the Louisiana Territory

  • The War of 1812

  • Civilization Fund Act

    Enacted to promote English education and practical skills for Native American people.
  • Period: to

    Varying Degrees of Acceptance and Suppression of Other Cultures

  • Mexico declares Independence from Spain

  • Cherokee Law

    Law within Cherokee Nation stating that Cherokee members
    “will not meet any commissioners of the United States to hold a treaty with them on the subject of making cession of lands, the property of the Cherokee nation, as we are determined hereafter never to make any cession of lands.”
  • Cherokee Writing System

    Created by Sequoia. Cherokees promoted their own literacy and bilteracy in English.
  • Texas colonized by Stephen F. Austin

    Texas colonized by Stephen F. Austin
  • Monroe Doctrine

    US declares no European setttlement in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Gold Discovery in Northern Georgia

    Gold found on Cherokee land.
  • Mexico Prohibits US Settlement

    Prohibition of US emmigration into Mexico was most likely caused by the growing emmigration population between 1823 and 1828.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    This act authorized the displacement of native peoples from their territory throughout the United States, specifically the Cherokee tribe in Georgia.
  • Nat Turner Leads Rebellion Against Slavery

    Nat Turner Leads Rebellion Against Slavery
  • Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

    This court decision ruled in favor of Georgia.
  • Worcester vs. Georgia

    The “court affirmed Cherokee sovereignty. President Andrew Jackson arrogantly defied the decision of the court and ordered the removal, an act that established the U.S. government’s precedent for the future removal of many Native Americans from their ancestral homelands."
  • Treaty of New Echota

    20 members of the Cherokee tribe, none of which were elected officials, signed a treaty that ceded all their territory east of the Mississppi River for $5 million and new homes in other Indian Territory.
  • Bilingual Education in Texas

  • Trail of Tears

    Crash Course State militias and federal troops began the enactment of the Treaty of New Echota by rounding up Cherokee members into stockades and forcing them off of their land.
  • Ohio Passes Bilingual Education Laws

  • Official status of French Language is protected by Louisiana Constitution

    1845 Louisiana Constitution of 1812 is revised and official status of the French Language is protected. Laws must now be promulgated in both English and French
  • Louisiana law allows French-English bilingual education in state public schools

  • US and Mexico sign treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo/Mexican Cession

    Acquire what is now pretty much the whole southwestern US.
  • New Mexico enacts Spanish-English bilingual education law

  • Appropriation Bill for Indian Affairs

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs opens 1st boarding school

    Bureau of Indian Affairs opens 1st boarding school
    The boarding school experience for Indian children began in 1860 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs established the first boarding school on the Yakima Indian Reservation in the state of Washington.
  • An Indian boarding school

    An Indian boarding school
  • Congressional Declaration

    Congressional Declaration
    Congress declared Native Americans cannot be taught in their own language.
  • German only Kindergarten

    German only Kindergarten
    William Harris, a St. Louis School Superintendent, created a kindergarten that only taught in German.
  • Native American Children forced into boarding schools

    Native American Children forced into boarding schools
    Native American children forced into boarding school where they could be punished if caught speaking their own language.
  • "Kill the Indian,Save the Man"

    "Kill the Indian,Save the Man"
    Educating Native Americans, the common belief that they must be taught to reject tribal culture and adapt to white society. Others called it cultural genocide that targeted children, with a belief that the government must "kill the Indian...to save the man".
  • The "Indian Problem" solved

    The "Indian Problem" solved
    When one Indian boy or girls leaves this school with an education the " Indian Problem" will forever be solved!!!!
  • Overview of Timeline

    Overview of Timeline
  • References