Alaskan natives

  • 100

    Knives and Daggers

    Knives and Daggers
    Daggers and Knives have been used since the creation of tools.
  • 100

    Way of living

    Although people have lived in Alaska for at least 15,000 years, the first written accounts regarding the inhabitants are less than 300 years old. Natives have been subsistence hunting for 15,000 years and still do it. Other sources of information, particularly about the inhabitants of Alaska before Euroamericans arrived, are based on oral traditions of Alaska's Natives.All Alaska Native groups expressed themselves artistically through earrings, face painting, labrets, tattooes,anddecoratedcloths
  • 101

    Bow & Arrow

    Bow & Arrow
    The oldest arrowhead in america is over 13,000 years old. depending on where you were, you would use either a composite, long bow or short bow. short bows werent really used until the introduction of horses.
  • 105

    Spears

    Spears
    Spears started being used over 10,000 years ago by native tribes. The earliest Native Americans inhabitants, known as Paleo-Indians, used very primitively made spears to hunt animals such as mammoths, mastodons, bison, and smaller animals. Soon, they developed a new tool called an atlatl, this tool helped them launch spears very quickly and with great force.
  • Jan 1, 900

    Fishing spears

    Fishing spears
    Special fishing spears were used by the Inuit and some Native American tribes of eastern Canada. Known as kakivak in the Inuktitut language, these spears were equipped with back-angled side prongs intended to catch and hold a fish speared in deep water, as from a boat in the open ocean or through a hole in the ice
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Bolas

    Bolas
    Bolas are Indian hunting weapons made from ropes with weighted ends, which are swung around in a circle and then launched at a prey animal, entangling it. As early as 15,000 years ago according to some archaeologists. Early explorers to the Arctic regions found Inuit people using what they called the qilamitautit to hunt birds. These were believed to have been invented by people of the Thule culture about A.D. 1000
  • Jan 1, 1010

    Shields

    Hide shields were commonly carried by American Indian warriors in many North American tribes. Their size and construction varied from tribe to tribe, but most Native American shields were round in shape, about three feet in diameter, and made of wood covered in layers of hardened rawhide.
  • Jan 1, 1010

    Armor

    Armor
    Native warriors usually wore light agile armor. Some tribes, particularly in the Northwest Coast, used heavier rod armor made of interlocking wooden plates and rods, and in same cases even two-piece carved wooden helmets consisting of a top helm and a lower visor
  • Houses

    Houses
    An underground tunnel entrance below the living level to trap cold air; A semi-subterranean structure, using the ground as insulation. A seal-oil lamp from soapstone or pottery, for light, heat and cooking. Homes were usually made from sod blocks, sometimes laid over driftwood
  • Tomahawks

    Tomahawks
    http://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/native-indian-weapons-tools/native-american-weapons.htm The tomahawk weapon was originally made with a stone head but developed in the 1600's using European technology. Pipe tomahawks were more ceremonial in nature (using the same shaft of wood as both the handle of a tomahawk, symbolic of war, and the body of a pipe, symbolic of peace.)
  • European influence

    The influence of the European style weapons on the Native Americans began in the 1600's when the European colonists and the Fur Traders arrived, necessitating regular contact between the two culture groups. The traders used weapons to trade for furs. The nature of hunting and warfare changed and Native Americans traded for European-style weapons whenever they could.
  • Virus Bering sails thought the Bering

    Turns back to land somewhere in the Chukchi Sea, spots the Diomede Islands (but not the Alaskan Coast). Natives they met on their voyage tell him there is no connection between the two continents. On his return to Moscow to address the Senate, he was told he failed his mission as he relied on the word of others. The result was the forfit of all his reward, no promotion, and a harsh delay of his payment.
  • Bering's Second Voyage

    On Bering's second voyage, he took a second sailor with him, Alexei Chirikov; they get seperated at the Alutiean Islands. Both ships made it to land; however, Alexei turned back after 18 of his men dissapeared (20 more died from scurvy) and Bering and many of his men, also weak from scurvy, starved to death. The ones who survived brought back many sea otter pelts and spawned a new wave of russian hunting and trapping.
  • Russian Colonization

    After 1741 wealthy Russian merchants put up money to pay experienced Siberian fur traders to voyage to various Aleutian islands in order to trade for pelts. The traders took sea otter, black and other foxes, and fur seals. The fur traders did not hunt the animals; instead they forced Aleut hunters to do the work. Often the Russians took Aleut women and children as hostages while the hunters gathered pelts. But not all the encounters between the fur traders and the Natives were hostile.
  • Russia Establishing Themselves among the Natives

    When survivors of Bering's Alaska expedition struggled back to Russia with their raft load of sea otter skins in 1742, they set off a fur rush. Fugitive serfs, ex convicts, debtors, along with a few sailors made up the crews of vessels in the new fur trade. As the fur fever increased, so did Russian violence and oppression. The fur seekers forced Aleut hunters to provide them with sea otter skins. Often they took the hunters' wives and children hostage to ensure the safe returnofRussianoverseers
  • European exploration of Alaska

    Britain dispatched captain James Cook who completed the first systematic survey of the Alaskan coastline. The Spanish claimed possession of nuchek bay in name of the king of Spain. The French, unwilling to be left out, sent the explorer Comte de La Perouse north to Lituya Bay. The British lost the American colonies during this time, the French faced a revolution at home, and the Spanish found themselves unable to hold onto their New World holdings in South America.
  • 1/2 of Russian explorer outposts

    The voyages from Siberia to America were expensive. Investors worked to save costs and increase their profits by forming partnerships. Eventually two groups came to dominate. One group, led by Gregorii Shelikhov, established the first permanent Russian post in Alaska, on Kodiak Island in 1784. From there Shelikhov sent hunters into Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound. They traded with local Natives, sometimes in a friendly manner, sometimes not.
  • 1/2 of major Russian explorers outposts

    Shelikhov's chief rival, Pavel Lebedev-Lastochkin, established several posts in Cook Inlet, at the mouths of the Kasilof and Kenai Rivers, on the west side of the inlet, and near the mouth of Eagle River. Eventually Shelikhov took over all of these posts.
  • Swords

    Swords
    Swords were not traditional weapons of Native Americans in most tribes, and never became very popular after European contact either. An exception is the native tribes of Alaska, where longer iron versions of the traditional double-sided daggers were made by the Tlingit and Haida people in the 1800's
  • Guns

    During the late 1860s that the Native Americans began to acquire up-to-date weaponry from the Europeans. The first modern weapons used by Native Americans in any number were the Winchester rifle and the Springfield rifle. The first documented use of these modern rifles against the opposition was when the Native Americans used them during the battle against General George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876.
  • Treaty with Russia

  • Statehood act sect. 4

    The statehood act states that not all land is state owned and managed. Part of the federally owned land is for natives. It acknowledges that natives have subsistent rights. Sect 4 is unique because no other state had mentioned natives in their constitution. When oil had been discovered natives referenced sect 4 stating it gave them land. The state cannot tax these native lands unless approved by congress
  • Obama coming to the arctic

    Obama coming to the arctic
    Climate change has been happening since the beginning of time. The rate has increased dramatically since the industrial revolution. President Obama is the first president to travel to the arctic circle. His plan was to spread the message of climate change and see the effects first hand.
  • How natives are preserving their culture part 1

    How natives are preserving their culture part 1
    One way natives have preserved their culture is by making a video game to keep up with technology today. The game will be voice in inupiaq with English subtitles. The game is a collaboration between several Alaska Native groups who are using today's technology to interest a younger generation in their own culture and to introduce that culture to a wider audience.
  • How natives preserve their culture part 2

    Another way natives preserve their culture is by having youth participate in the Native Youth Olympics. NYO puts an emphasis on flexibility, power, balance, concentration, agility, physical strength, and stamina. These are the characteristics of hunting and surviving. For example the seal hop originated from the hunter imitating the movement of a seal during the hunt. This game is to see just how far one can go on determination and endurance.
  • Effects of global warming

    Effects of global warming
    Global warming is effect Alaska natives greatly because it's melting ice caps, warming waters, and killing animals. It's directly effecting Alaskan natives subsistence hunting. Animals like seals and polar bears rely on ice for their survival, including feeding, mating, and resting. Are affected by increased temperatures. Because the Yukon River has warmed over 10°F, up to 45% of Yukon salmon are now infected with the parasite Icthyophonus, never found before 1985.
  • How natives preserve their culture part 3

    The national trust for historic preservation is another organization that helps preserve native culture. Organization`s goal is "to support and assist preservation, maintenance, and revitalization of past and present cultural lifeways unique to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians" and to encourage and assist in "the protection of historic and cultural properties" including the nomination to and listing of such properties in the National Register of Historic Places.
  • How natives preserve their culture part 4

    How natives preserve their culture part 4
    The Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN) is the largest statewide Native organization in Alaska. The mission of AFN is to enhance and promote the cultural, economic and political voice of the entire Alaska Native community. AFN’s major goals are fAlaska Native people, their governments and organizations, with respect to federal, state and local laws, Foster and encourage preservation of Alaska Native cultures, Promote understanding of the economic needs of Alaska Natives and encourage development.