United States History, 1830-1900

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    United States History

  • Trail Of Tears

    Trail Of Tears
    In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was enforced by the United States; forcing all Indian tribes to be moved east of the Mississippi River. By 1838, the US Government moved over 16,000 Cherokee Indians from their homes to a western location which now known as Oklahoma. This resettlement devastated both Indian civilization and Indian culture and was an addition to Indian resentment toward American’s; one crucial addition to any feelings of war.
  • Mexican Cession

    Mexican Cession
    The Mexican Cession of 1848 was due largely to dispute of over boundaries in Texas, in 1846. Congress eventually declared war with Mexico because a compromise was not being made. America and Mexico fought for over a year, when in 1848 the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was recognized. This resulted in the expansion of America, and much conflict over slavery; which eventually led to the Civil War.
  • Reservation Policy

    Reservation Policy
    In 1851, federal government began to assign Indian tribes large areas of land, which were referred to as reservations. These lands were made to specify Indian boundaries. The new policy, however, was ignored by most Indians, and they continued roaming freely. This policy led to Indian Wars and eventually the Dawes Severalty Act which limited land even more than the current policy.
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    Sioux Wars

    Several Sioux Wars occurred, all of which proved how uncivilized the West was between Americans and Indians. These wars resulted in many deaths, and proved Indians to have the ability to put of a fight to American's, rather than just backing down.
  • Comstock Lode

    Comstock Lode
    The Comstock Lode was the first major silver discovery in American history. The discovery took place in Nevada, in 1859. This initial discovery led to the “Rush to Washoe”, and the event lasted for the next 20 years in the United States. The Comstock Lode led Nevada to finally gain statehood within the Union because it rapidly populated the state. However, by 1882 when the Comstock Lode ended, many left Nevada, and the state became an “economic and social wreck”.
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    McCoy/Abilene

    In the 1860’s, Joseph G. McCoy enrolled himself into cattle business. His idea was to ship depot for cattle into the West, so he created a trail in Abilene, Kansas, which led to Indian territory. By the early 70’s, over 600,000 cattle were shipped from Abilene. In the 80‘s, McCoy became an agent to the Cherokee Indians. This led to easier migration of cattle and a way for Indians to make profit.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    Transcontinental Railroad
    he Transcontinental Railroad began in 1862 and was built to connect the East and West together. In 1869, the two sides being built finally met in Utah. This success brought America to a whole new level industrially and also made transportation much easier. The Transcontinental Railroad inspired many new transportation ideas and also allowed for migration to the Frontier; which led to violence and commotion between Americans and Indians.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    he Homestead Act which was signed by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War in 1862, encouraged western migration by guaranteeing each citizen 160 acres of public land so long as they pay a small fee and complete a five-year residency on the land. This act led to the “distribution of 80 million acres of public land by 1900.” This newly granted land gave all citizens a fair chance and encouraged migration to the West.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    In 1864, Col. John Chivington led a small militia to attack Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in Sand Creek, Colorado. While Indians had only just ventured to Sand Creek in order to escape American Military campaigning, over 250 Indians were murdered during on this day. This massacre was the beginning of war between Indians and Americans.
  • Chisholm Trail

    Chisholm Trail
    The Chisholm Trail was a route in Texas used for livestock. Its use began in 1867, and ended in 1884. It provided a source of steady income to Texas, which helped the state due to the recent Civil War. The trail inspired the cattle industry, which brought about the new settlement of cowboys.
  • Ghost Dance Movement

    Ghost Dance Movement
    Jack Wilson was then responsible for the new Ghost Dance phenomenon, which told people that as long as they all act reasonably and well (Don’t sin) then they would finally be granted equality and they would be granted happiness. Eventually, a new meaning was again added by the Plains Indians, which made Indians think they needed to drive American’s out of lands that were once theirs; eradication of whites. This movement led to even more dissatisfaction between Indians and Americans. Specificall
  • Barbed Wire

    Barbed Wire
    In 1873, 10 years later, Henry M. Rose put out an idea of fencing which inspired Joseph Glidden, Jacob Haish, and Isaac Ellwood. Each man individually tried to invent a new fence which would prick and animal when it came too close to the fence. This invention led to the Kansas Fence Laws, which made the owner of animals responsible for their trespassing. Barbed wire also led railroad companies to become largely dependent on it; railroads were required to have a fence along the side of them.
  • Little Big Horn

    Little Big Horn
    Little Big Horn Battle was fought on Little Big Horn river in central Montana. In 1876, Sitting Bull (Chief) and the rest of his Lakota Sioux tribe, as well as Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes fought against the 7th regiment of the US cavalry, under control of George Armstrong Custer and Major Reno. This battle was due to their cultural differences and many past disputes over territory. This battle resulted in a short victory to Sioux and Cheyenne tribes.
  • Nez Perce War

    Nez Perce War
    This was yet another event where the U.S. tried to limit Indian rights. This event proves however, that Indians had the ability to fight back toward U.S. forces. Although the U.S. Army was able to take complete control over Indians, this war proved that Indians were able to fight back and to rebel against stronger forces. By not giving up, the non-treaty Nez Perce were able to inspire other Indians to stand up for themselves.
  • Carlisle School

    Carlisle School
    Richard Henry Pratt founded the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania, 1879. Pratt’s purpose of this new school was to give Indians the ability to read- and to teach them how wrong “white-men” can be when the create new treaties, and indeed, that is what it did.
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    End of Buffalo Herds

    America became much more industrial-based in the late 1800’s which led to the desire of buffalo hides. Slaughterings of buffalos by white men was extremely common within the 1880’s which killed off many of the buffalos. The Transcontinental Railroad also led to the extinction of buffalos, because trains were designed to be able to kill anything that may be in front of them on the tracks, such as buffalo crossing.
  • Century of Dishonor

    Century of Dishonor
    In 1881 Helent Hunt Jackson's book, “Century of Dishonor”, was published in order to explain how brutally and unfairly Indians were treated. While congress paid notice to Jackson’s book, the book resulted in the Dawes Act of 1887. This law restricted Indian land and led to many deaths and more violence. It was made in order to separate tribes and destroy Indian culture.
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    The Dawes Act was created in 1887, named after Henry Dawes, the author of the Act. This law allowed for the president to divide reservation land into small allotments for Indian families in Western territories. Indians were forced to practice the Agrarian culture now, which led to many deaths due to poverty, and disease.
  • Wounded Knee

    Wounded Knee
    On December 15th, Sitting Bull was shot by American forces. Chief Big Foot, being next on the list, led his people south to find safety. This battle ended the practice of the Ghost Dance Movement, as well as ended Indian Wars due to its brutality.