Indians in the U.S.

  • Period: Jan 1, 900 to Dec 31, 1300

    Ancestral Pueblos Thrived

    South West: Ancestral pueblos built apartment like structures in the Canyon in Pueblo Bonito; acting as one of the first urban centers. Similar structures were found in Masa Verde, Colorado. They thrived until a volcanic eruption, soil depletion, and crop failure causes tensions that caused thr pueblos to break into smaller bands.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Cahokia Mound

    Cahokia Mound
    In about 1400 CE the Cahokia Mound band showed to have open plaza for ceremonies and ball play, astronomical observations, and had a very sophisticated society.
  • Dec 31, 1450

    Cahokia Mound was abandoned

    Cahokia Mound was abandoned
    Due to an extremely large population, food supply ran short, crops failed, floods occured, there were earthquakes, environmental changes, and pressure from outside groups Cahokia was abandoned.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus sailed West to get East

    Columbus sailed West to get East
    Columbus sailed for Spain and ended up in the Caribbean believing it was the east thus the term "Indian" for Native Americans. He enslaved and colonized these natives and forced coversion to Christianity. Many were murdered, raped, and enslaved because of Columbus and his men.
  • Jan 1, 1508

    Quebec founded by France

    Quebec founded by France
  • Period: Jan 1, 1508 to

    French Colonization Efforts and the Middle Ground

    Rought estimation of time for French interaction with Native groups. A middle ground was created between the French and Native peoples were they would work and live alongside each other. Many intermarried for political and economic opportunities that came along with kinship ties. A common language was create in these areas and there was a high rate of cultural exchange. France was essentially pushed out when Spain took control of certain areas as well as British and eventually American defeat.
  • Jan 1, 1513

    Spanish Colonizers and Natives: Choices

    Spanish Colonizers and Natives: Choices
    Spanish colonizers in the New World gave Native people the choice (in Spanish) that if - peacefully - they submit to Spain and Catholisim and admit self and land are under control while saying Pope and Catholicism are their spiritual guide they would not need to use force. This all resulted in incredbily harsh treatments of native people in central America.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Montreal founded by France

    Montreal founded by France
  • Period: to

    Rowanoke: The Lost Colony

    Under ordered of the British, in 1585 Walter Rawley established the Rowanoke colony. Originally therre were 100 men until women, men, and families came the following year. Work was segregated by gender, as with most societies during this time. When a supply ship came in 1590, the settlement was abandoned and the only thing that remained was a carving in a tree that read "CROATAN." Some theories suggest that the settlers either died off or went to live with the indignous people known by that name
  • Jamestown: The First British Colony

    Jamestown: The First British Colony
    Sponsored by the Virginia Company, Jamestown was founded by the British. These men came to America for political strife and as a result of religious conflict. They offered Protestantism as an alternative to Catholicism offered by France and Spain because they believed it was doing great harm to Natives. Most of these men were sons of the gentry class and looking for economic opportunity and did not have a great sense of what work and labor entailed.
  • Powhatten bailed out Jamestown

    Powhatten bailed out Jamestown
    Powhatten, paramount chief of the Powhatten Confederacy, essentially saved the Jamestown settlers because of their inability to cultivate the land properly and feed themselves, along with other problems. He saved them by willingly integrating the settlers into his world because he saw them as a nonthreat. He was used to trade with these settlers and knew of their inabaility to figure out and cultivate the land.
  • Explotation Systems of Labor

    Explotation Systems of Labor
    In ~1610 in Santa Fee, New Mexico the Encomianda and the Repartimento System were widely used.
    Encomienda System: assigned Spanish settlers Native people for labor. They had to convert and educate them in the ways of Spanish-European-Christian culture.
    Repartimento System: whole Native towns were responsible to supply labor to Spanish settler. They tried to convert the pueblo people and treated them so poorly that tensions mounted over time.
  • Plymouth, New England is founded by the British

    Plymouth, New England is founded by the British
    The Plymouth voyage was movitavted by religious freedom and ecomonic opportunity. They wanted to trade with local indiginous people and needed to. Settlers depended heavily on the natives for survival. This colony was more stable and centered on the church family.
  • The First Thanksgiving

    The First Thanksgiving
    At the first Thanksgiving the Pilgrims, Massasoit - the chief of the Wampanoag - and a large number of his men came together for a fiest. Massasoit was very protective of the Pilgrims for a while beause of how defenseless he felt they were. The Wampanoag basically were the reason that the Pilgrims survived when first coming to this New World.
  • Tensions between Jamestown Settlers and the Powhatten Confederacy were escalating

    Tensions between Jamestown Settlers and the Powhatten Confederacy were escalating
    With the increased settler population threatening the Powhatten confederacy, as well as new leadership under Powhatten's brother Opechan, a surprise attack killed about 300 settlers. The setllers retaliated, destroying some Powhatten villages.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony founded

    Massachusetts Bay Colony founded
    The Massachusetts Bay colony was set up for similar reasons as that of Plymouth. Over the years this colony grrew overtime and tensions with the local indiginous peoples mounted, leading to conflict.
  • Pohattan's Attack Jamestown Again

    Pohattan's Attack Jamestown Again
    In 1644 Powhattens attacked again but it ended in great failure. Coastal Native people signed a treaty agreeing to love on a reservation that same year. They now had control over their own land without threat of a colonial invasion.
  • Period: to

    King Philip's War

    Rought estimation of time for King Philip's War. Metacomet of the Wampanoag, incoalition with other Native groups, attacked coastal New England. Town's were destroyed and many settlers were killed. When the settlers counterattacked the loss for the Native were way worse. in 1676 Metacomet died in conflict and has his decapitated head put on a stake that served as a warning by the gates of the colony. In the end, Wampanoag lost sovereignty and were sold into slavery in the West Indies.
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    Pueblo Revolt: Popé and Louise Tapetu

    Popé, a medicine man from San Juan, and Louise Tapetu, a poltical leader of the Picutis pueblo, came together to organize the roughly 17,000 people scattered over 24 villages - having different languages and dialects - to revolt against the Spanish settlers. They blocked Santa Fe, damaged property, set fires, and murdered Spanish settlers. The revolt was not sustained because of the ever growing population threat of the colonist.
  • Captivity is offbalanced

    Captivity is offbalanced
    By 1715 the traditional practice of taking captive by certain native groups was way off balance because of the need for captives - to become slaves - for trading purposes with settlers. Traditionally, native groups would take captives to bring the tribe back to balance after a member had been lost. The captives were ususally adopted into the tribe as a way to replace a family member. This went off balance because of trade with settlers.
  • Period: to

    Yamasee War

    Native tribes banned together to attack the settlers in colonial Carolina. They no longer were going to raid and trade native captives. Just about every white slave trader was killed out of who they could find in the Charleston area. This was another reason that slavery became tied to race.
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    French and Indian War

    Allied with the French, the many Natives - notably the Cherokee - helped fight the British colonist and Britain. Natives got involved to enhance political power, protect land, protect culture, and choice what to adopt from settler culture. Natives also wanted to maintain play-off diplomacy between the British and French. In the end the British won the war. The 1763 Treaty of Paris left Natives out of negotiation, leading the French to give up land they had no claim to.
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    Pontiac's War

    A coalition of Great Lakes natives, lead by Pontiac were insprited by Neolin, a Delaware Indian who had a vision giving a message that natives can only be free if they reject Euro-American ways. In 1763 this Native coalition captured or destroyed every British fort west of the Appalachians, which scared many settlers back East. Natives lost the rebellion but their efforts gave way to the Royal Proclaimation that prohibited settlers from going west of the Appalachians.
  • Period: to

    The American Revolution

    Natives, for the most part, sided with the British because of their hatred for colonist but many New England natives, because of intermarraige anf cultural exchange, sided with the colonist. Some tribed were divided in support. in 1783 at the Peace of Paris, no natives were pesent at negotiations and were ignored by both the British and the Americans. This resulted in all Natives being grouped together as enemies.
  • Treaty of Greenville

    Treaty of Greenville
    Natives had to give up a large sum of the land in Southern Ohio after conflict. Tecumseh of the Shawnees refused to sign this because they saw Ohio as the center of the world and because they had been there so so long that it was their land accoridng to the Shawnees.
  • Setller Population Eclipses Native Population

    Setller Population Eclipses Native Population
    By the eve of 1800 the settler population took over the Native population in numbers. Trade was more on the terms of the settlers because of this increae in population and because of a bureaucratic system.
  • Spring 1805 Tenskwatawa's Vision

    Spring 1805 Tenskwatawa's Vision
    In Spring of 1805, Tenskwatawa - brother to Tecusah who acted as military leader for the Shawnees - collapsed into a fire and was believed to be dead. He miraculously came back with a vision showing the damage the white man will do. He saw that Indian people could make themselves whole again by rejecting white influence and revitalizing native culture; do not dress like whites, do not drink, etc. This message was spread to many native tribes who looked to it as a guide and saw Tecumsah as leader
  • Tecumseh becomes leader - start of Tecumseh's War

    Tecumseh becomes leader - start of Tecumseh's War
    Tecusah, with his brother's message, unified the Shawnees and moved the center of ths movemenrt to a new village in land given to Americans in the Treaty of Greenville. He set out to meet with other tribes to form alliances and to eventually create a United States of American Indians in the Great Lakes region where these groups would share land and be in control of themselves without interaction with whites. He convinced the warriors over the chiefs because of their importance to this movement.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    Between Tecumseh and his followers - mostly Shawnees - and United States forces lead by William Henry Harrision. This came some time after a meeting between Tecumseh and Harrision where it was clear that fighting was in their future and when Harrision sent trrops to Prophete's town in late 1810. Native forces were outnumbered and fled Prophete's town before US forces entered the area. The Confederacy scattered.
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    The Battle of 1812: Native Involvement and the end of Tecumseh's War

    In 1812 Tecumseh set out to reunite the scattered confederancy (the largest native confederacy ever). The British allied with natives in the Battle of 1812. Tecumseh and his men pushed conflicts in Canada to the American side. In fall 1813 the British fleet was defeated at the Battle of Lake Erie and abandoned native allies under Tecumseh on October 5, 1813. Tecumseh convinced them to leave their guns so natives could continue to fight. Tecumseh died in battle as did his dream of a Confederacy.
  • Period: to

    Civilization Policy Era

    The Civilization Fund Act started the Civilization Era in Federal Indian Policy. Civilization efforts, including education and missionary efforts, were put in place to assimilate and "civilize" native people.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was passed under Andrew Jackson and lead to the Trail of Tears where Cherokees were moved off their land in the Mississippi area to places further west where they could be further taught to be "civilized" under the Civilization Policy. Some stayed behind and hid on their ancestoral land. This also effected other groups such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    Justice Marshall stated that he could not ajudicate the case because Cherokees are not United States citizens. The Cherokee Nation is seen as a seperate nation but a dependent nation.
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Worcester v. Georgia
    Marshall states that the Cherokee Nation is a distinct community "where the laws of Gerogia can have no fault." This was a great victory for the Cherokee Nation against the harsh policing by the state of Georgia.
  • Treaty of New Echota

    Treaty of New Echota
    Calls for removal of Cherokees. It was digned by Major Ridge, his son, and two fo his nephews who were all wealthy Christian plantation owners. They did not have the authority to sign this treaty, and the US knew that. The consequence for any Cherokee to sign this was death and they all recieved their punishment. These men felt that Chief Ross was wrong to not agree to the removal because they saw the benefit in the treaty. In 1838 Cherokees were forced at gun point out of their homes.
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    Reservation Era

    Reservation governments were set up in Native land but the US government. Department of Interior -> BIA -> regional superindentents who divided up indian country ro regions that have an intendent -> Indian agents who were federal employees on the ground that oversaw the day to day life on the reservation. Reservations were frequently far from home, economically challenging, and depressing, Reservations werre dependent by design. The low point of indiginous population was in 1890.
  • The Carlisle Institute Opens

    The Carlisle Institute Opens
    Richard Henry Pratt built and opened the Carlisle Institute sometime in 1879 with funding from the government. It was a boarding school for Native Americans where they would be seperated by their family to try to assilimate them fully into white societal ways. He said with this school that natives "could be made just as competent as white people." Pratt previously educated Plains War captives. Many more boarding schools popped up around the country.
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    Allotment Policy

    Alottment started with the Dawes Act that allowed the US President to divide indian land and assign it to individuals. Those who accepted allotment would become US citizens. Excess land on reservations after allotmemt were sold. This policy failed at its goal to end tribalism. Boarding schools were set up around this era to try to aculturate children and adults to basically learn how to become white and strip them of their native culture. Allotment ended in the 1930s.
  • Massacre at Wounded Knee

    Massacre at Wounded Knee
    Big Foot - a Lakota chief - trave;ed because he feared imprisonment for letting the Ghost Dance - a dance that brought hope of returning to precontect times for Natives - spread and because he was sick and wanted to bring his tribe unfer the protection of another band. They met up with the US calvary in South Dakota where the forces demanded that they hand over their weapons. Because the calvary was dissatisfied with the pace and thoroughness of the groups efforts, they opened fire.
  • The End of the Ghost Dance Movement and the Plains Wars

    The End of the Ghost Dance Movement and the Plains Wars
    The Plains Wars were a form of armed resistance to the reservation era policies. Meanwhile, the Ghost Dance Movement spread rapidly through native country from its introduction in 1889 by the Nevada Paiute. By doing this dance, it was a way to return to old times and a way to get back lost loved ones.
  • Indian Civilization Act

    Indian Civilization Act
    Native Americans became citizens and got the right to vote, though many did not ask for this or want this.
  • By the 1930s many believed boarding schools had failed.

    By the 1930s many believed boarding schools had failed.
    Growing critiques of the boarding school system mounted in the early late 19th/ early 20th century from many, including those who had been through the system. Natives were taught jobs that would keep them in the same place economically and were taugh the jobs of the past instead of those needed in the currrent time. Many natove groups started to open up their own schools on the reservation and taugh both English and the native language.
  • Period: to

    Indian New Deal - Indian Reorganization Act

    Promised New Deal policies to native peoples, overturned allotment, and provided funds, support, and respect for indiginous cultures and people. It also brought back land lost during allotment. This act ignored sovereignty unless tribes adopted constitutional governments - drawn up by the BIA - with an elected executive. John Collier, head of Indian Affairs, helped the BIA create the Arts & Crafts board in 1935 to authenricate and market native crafts. Ends in 1945 because of WWII but ND remains
  • Indian Claims Commission

    Dealt with promises and pledges made in treaties that were never given out. This was ususally things promised for land lost. If groups claims were recognized and they took the payments, they were usually short changed and the US thought the slate was clean after things were settled.
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    Termination Policy

    The US government tried to "get out of the Indian business." Tribe by tribe the US would determine whether or not a tribe was economically stable enough for the US to terminate sovereign status, thus eneding treaty rights. During this era, the US set up a program for relocation of Indian families to cities as a way to try to assimilate them. Eventualy, it was turned over to Native control and the program ran more smoothly. All of this sparked the Red Power Movement.
  • By the 1960s half of all Indians lived in cities

    This was due to assimilation programs that would encourage native families to move to cities and essentially assimilate. For the most part, Indian city centers and programs were created by Natives for Natives that were also tricked into moving to these cities. Eventually, the government let Natives take over most aspects of this program, they just funded it.
  • American Indian Conference in Chicago

    A group of academics and activist got together and created the Declaration of Indian Purpose. It expressed the need for self-determination and states that native groups and nations should have the right to control their own politics, economies, territories, and to determine what happens to members, tribal land, etc. The biggest push was for treaty rights and tribal sovereignty.
  • AIM - American Indian Movement

    AIM - American Indian Movement
    Started as a grassroots protection society for natives that encountered violence when leaving bars but grew into a movement that was greatly inspired by the Civil Rights Movement. Their staying was "Anywhere. Anytime. Anyplace. "
  • Indian Civil Rights Act

    Basicallty gave Indians the same rights as those guaranteed in the Civil Rights Act/ 14th Amendment
  • Indian Education Act

    Provides for funding for indiginous school children who went to public schools.
  • The Trail of Broken Treaties

    The Trail of Broken Treaties
    AIM organized the Trail of Broken Treaties where caravans of cars drove from all over to DC where a meeting was promised upon thier arrival with the BIA. Because of the building they put the leaders in, AIM activist occupied the BIA building. It ended peacefully with a promise of a future meeting to consider the 20 point document they brought with them. This meeting never happened.
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    AIM and Oglala occupy Wounded Knee

    Chairman Dick Wilson treated the Oguala Sue terribly and was disliked by a vast majority of the people on the reservation. He was always in conflict with the traditional chiefs. When Wilson's ruling seemed unbearable, AIM was called in. They moved the protest to Wounded Knee on March 11 because of the history there and declared it the independent Oguala nation. Violence ensued between AIM, the US government, and Wilson and his men. In the end, AIM was dealt with in the courts.
  • Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

    Tribes were owned the services of education, healthcare, safety, etc because of the land they surrendered in treaties - Nixon recognized that. Government offered these services but Natives now controlled them.
  • Indian Healthcare Improvement Act

    Gave tribes a way to run Indian healthcare programs. Previously, these programs were not always willing to provide proper care and many Native women were sterilized during the 10s and 70s because of this previous healthcare system.
  • American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Protected religious freedom of Natives of any religion, native churches can use paole. A pledge with not much legal backing.
  • Indian Child Welfare Act

    Extensive removal of children from Native families had to be stopped. Authority to do so was given to tribal courts and they would oversee the foster care and eventual adoption. Idealy, the child would stay with other family or someone else in the reservation.
  • Indian Gaming Act Passed by Congress

    Indian Gaming Act Passed by Congress
    This was passed by Congress because of the overwhelming desire to build casinos on native land. Native nations need to enter into a pact with the state in which they live in. They have to respect the state but if the state refuses to negotiate in good faith the tribe has the right to sue in federal court.